Table of contents
- Vitamin D Mitigates COVID-19, Say 40+ Patient Studies (listed below) – Yet BAME, Elderly, Care-homers, and Obese are still ‘D’ deficient, thus at greater COVID-19 risk - WHY?
- See also in VitaminDWiki
- Many clinical trials are underway which are testing Vitamin D to fight COVID-19
Vitamin D Mitigates COVID-19, Say 40+ Patient Studies (listed below) – Yet BAME, Elderly, Care-homers, and Obese are still ‘D’ deficient, thus at greater COVID-19 risk - WHY?
British Medical Journal Oct 15, 2020
Robert A Brown, Researcher, McCarrison Society, La Route de Mont Cochon, St Lawrence, Jersey. C.I. @purplejustice
Vitamin D reduces COVID-19; infection; severity; ICU admission and mortality: as clearly evidenced by; immune biology, observational and interventional studies, and wider considerations of; latitude, seasonal UVB exposure, and national supplementation policies: the uncertainty is the quantum: but studies suggest ‘D’ effects are likely large - 50% less infectivity – multiples lower ICU and mortality rate.
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone, also present in limited dietary sources. For most, the major ‘D’ source is skin exposure to UVB in sunlight, which waxes and wanes seasonally. Supplementation is the only other option. ‘D’ with 50 metabolites is more bio-actively influential than appreciated. Sensible ‘D’ supplementation has a 100-year track-record. Side-effects are minimal.
Dexamethasone in the same structural steroid family as ‘D’, shares common VDR (vitamin-D-receptor) and related gene pathways, is artificial, and in some circumstances mitigates against COVID-19, albeit with variable side-effects. Dexamethasone is clearly a useful adjunct.
‘D’ deficiencies are widespread globally, and particularly in; BAME, African Americans, Elderly, Carehomers,[6, 7] (Reality-check ref.) and Obese Persons; groups also at high-risk of COVID-19. Regions with proactive Vitamin-D-policies, education, nutritional supplementation, and/or greater UVB exposure, have much lower COVID-19 infection and mortality; e.g. Finland, Norway, New Zealand and, Equatorial-Africa (despite poverty / high urban-multi-person-dwelling-occupation).
Appropriate vitamin D supplementation risks are small: rewards huge. Public policy application of Bradford-Hill risk / harm criteria, used for smoking, social-distancing and masks, would support ‘D’ supplementation of at-risk groups, and ‘D’ testing of all COVID-19 hospital patients.
Parachute RCTs studies (Smith & Pell. J CBE ) [10, 11] ; analogies for research situations of observable risk reduction, but limited viable ethical alternatives; incisively, with wry humour, highlight risks of overly focusing on para-RCT-centric research.
- four interventions [12-14, 85];
- a retrospective examination of clinical practice; and
- thirty-nine observationals, [16-50, 86]
- three more are questioned;[51-53]
- some are preprints.
All consider, mixed-size pre-and -or-post-infection ‘D’ samples, and COVID-19 positive patients. All studies variously evidence mitigation of COVID-19 infectivity and/or severity, by ‘D’.
Additionally, Biobank-study ‘D’ data (all over 10-years-old),[54-56] showed positive associations before adjustment. Comorbidities adjusted for, are impacted by vitamin D levels, making evaluation complex. EPIC vitamin D data had no date-limits.
Latitudinal, COVID-19 seasonality, and wider, studies, including of polymorphisms, grow in number; including those referencing historic pandemics and influenzas: Juzeniene is a stand-out. Latitudinal studies[63, 64] are helpful, but limited by availability of current accurate population ‘D’ data.
An in-vitro study, observes; “Vitamin D, calcitriol, exhibits significant potent activity against SARS-CoV-2.”
Numerous studies, explain vitamin D’s central genetic evolutionary,[67, 68] and wider role, in immune modulation, through multiple various and diverse  pathways, including via peroxisomes and mitochondria. More generally, studies link low ‘D’ with negative wider health effects including increased mortality.
Early 2020 hypotheses linking COVID-19 infectivity / severity, to vitamin D, include; Grant, Brown, and Davies. Helpful summaries include Benskin.
The urgent need for major studies, has been raised in several BMJ Rapid Responses.[76-82]
Collectively, studies strongly suggest essential prohormone-and-nutrient vitamin D, is a far more effective potential basal COVID-19 treatment, than any additive pharmaceutical available to date. Pharmaceuticals and vaccines are ultimately appreciated adjuncts, to meeting essential evolutionary biological nutrient intake imperatives.
Immediately testing of all COVID-19 hospital patient admissions for vitamin D, and supplementing where necessary, according to established NICE guidelines, would provide time for new protocol, RCT-clinical-trials.
Thus, there is every reason to ‘D’ test hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Arguably, not to do so, in light of study outcomes to date, risks negligence. Judges, if asked, may take a broad-view in weighing evidence.
Since late January 2020, a loose group, have requested major clinical studies of sufficient power, including in care-homes, and hospitals. I thank Cooper, Grant, Grimes, Lahore, Pfleger, Rhein, Shotwell, Sarkar, and others, for sharing.
However, high-level drive and funding, have been lacking, exacerbated by the Wellcome-Gates-Accelerator exclusion from funding of ‘D’. Consequentially, research establishments excluded ‘D’ trials, focusing instead on repurposing, and new drugs, including in care-home settings. ‘D’ studies would reduce the study patient pool: further, successful ‘D’ outcomes may reduce funding for long-shot studies.
‘D’ is a non-patentable product family, produced by evolution, for which humans can garner no credit, with limited financial drivers to satisfy eternal human-yearning for golden but elusive bonanzas.
Overall, if the depth of information, and number of studies on ‘D’, consistently pointing in the same direction, related to a new COVID-19 ‘drug’, with minimal side-effects, it would have been front-page-news. Additional clinical research would have been prioritised with determination and alacrity, and ‘D’ by now, licensed as a standard-treatment-protocol.
In terms of saving lives, mental health and economies, it is inconsequential whether deficiency is due to pre-existing low-levels at infection, or infection driven catabolism. IF the issue was dehydration, nobody would dream of saying, ‘withhold treatment until determination if dehydration was due to; fever, or low historic water intake pre-infection’.
Surely the simple steps, of ‘D’ supplementing, and/or testing-and-supplementing, of at least all COVID-19 patients, and high-risk-persons, should be implemented as a matter of urgency. Thought-provokingly hospital ‘D’ supplementation was standard practice in Daniel Drake Center for Post-Acute Care in Cincinnati for many years.
Absent: authorities; redirecting resources and research-focus; changing public health and hospital testing and supplementation policies, to ones that fully recognise the often-discriminatory impact and extent of ‘D’ deficiency disease, particularly in high risk groups; and funding and driving of urgent further ‘D’ research; human-frailties dictate ‘D’ will be shuffled into the pending-tray; notwithstanding observed 50% ‘D’ related reductions in infection (Kaufman 190,000 patient-base),[27, 39, 41] and reductions in ICU patients by multiples (Castillo, Tan et al).[12, 17, 31, 45, 48]
Pragmatic recognition of the need to: supplement ‘D’ in; high risk groups, COVID-19 hospital patients, and more widely; eliminate the ‘social-injustice’[6, 7] of vitamin ‘D’ discrimination against; BAME, the Elderly, Carehomers and Obese; reduce infection, ICU pressures and mortality, so public fear: could provide a cheap resource-and-cost-saving basal treatment protocol, added to by vaccines, a ‘paradigm-shift’ enlightening bleak COVID-19 outlooks, empowering people, thus possible exit from D-deficient COVID-19 pandemic shadow-lands, steering a ‘D’ course to a brighter pastures.
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COVID-19 and Dark Skins
COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos
As of July 26, the page had: 34 trials, 6 trial results, 20 meta-analyses and reviews, 61 observations, 34 recommendations, 53 associations, 89 speculations, 45 videos see related: Governments, HealthProblems, Hospitals, Dark Skins, 26 risk factors are ALL associated with low Vit D, Recent Virus pages Fight COVID-19 with 50K Vit D weekly Vaccine problems
- Vaccine effectiveness may drop to only 16% in 6 months if time between jabs was only 3 weeks – July 2021
- Vitamin D known to fight 8 classes of health problems, probably fight COVID-19 as well – July 2021
- Vitamin D, C, A, and E, as well as Iron, Se, and Zinc each augment vaccine response – July 2021
- Vitamin D is one of 14 ways proven to treat COVID-19 – July 2021
- COVID-19 death 40 percent less likely if supplemented with Vitamin D and got above 30 ng (Spain 108,000 people) – July 2021
- Children getting severe COVID-19 were 5.5 X more likely to have low vitamin D -July 2021
- 5,000 U daily raised Vitamin D a bit and helped COVID-19 a bit – RCT June 2021
- Severe COVID-19 3.5 more likely if low vitamin D (30 studies) – meta-analysis July 2021
- 7X less likely to go to ICU if COVID-19 ward gave calcifediol (semi-activated Vitamin D) – July 2021
- Poor food, little intense exercise again associated with low Vitamin D (and more COVID-19 in this case) – July 2021
- If low vitamin D, 2.5X more likely enter hospital with COVID-19 (UK, 10 months) – June 17, 2021
- COVID-19 patients who had supplemented with Vitamin D were 3X less likely to enter ICU – June 2021
- Vitamin D and COVID-19 both affect immune cells – June 2021
- Pandemics are now every few years, next might be in 2025 (Vitamin D levels have crashed) – June 2021
- Higher rate of serious Vaccination problems than COVID-19 deaths – June 24, 2021
- COVID-19 5X worse if poor Vitamin D gene (CYP2R1) – June 2021
- 600,000 IU of Vitamin D helped 26 out of 28 COVID-19 patients in ICU (Brazil and Bolivia) June 2021
- 3 billion dollars being spent on developing a pill to treat pandemic viruses (ignoring Vitamin D)
- COVID-19 death in hospital 5X more likely if low vs high vitamin D – preprint June 2021
- COVID-19 and variants are here to stay (he fails to mention that vitamin D might help) - June 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 complications (188 publications, 90 dollar paywall) – June 2021
- How Vitamin D, Magnesium, Omega-3 and Zinc prevent and treat COVID-19 and many other health problems – June 2021
- More than enough evidence on the Yellow Card system to declare the COVID-19 vaccines unsafe for use in humans. - June 9, 2021
- COVID-19 deaths 1.7X more likely if low vitamin D (even after “adjusting” for low D health problems) – May 2021
- Vitamin D has the most supporting science of all micronutrients to fight COVID-19 – May 2021
- COVID-19 fought by Vitamin D, how much more evidence is needed -May 2021
- COVID-21 (COVID-19 with mutations) causing increased pregnancy problems in Brazil and India – May 2021 Pregnancy
- COVID-19, dark skin, pregnancy - Dr. Grimes, etc. - May 2021 Pregnancy
- Increased pregnancy problems with COVID-19 – meta-analysis and letter to editor – April 2021 Pregnancy
- Vitamin D Receptor activation should reduce ARDS associated with COVID-19 - June 2020
- Half of COVID-19 death rate differences explained by rates of elderly influenza vaccination and low vitamin D – April 2021
- COVID-19 inflammation extinguished by 60,000 IU of vitamin D nanoemulsion daily for a week – RCT May 2021
- Treatments for 303,000 COVID-19 patients: vitamin D is both popular and over-the-counter – May 2021
- Dr. Fauci speculates on future use of masks in the winter (when vitamin D levels are low) May 2021
- Country reliant on tourism vaccinated, but now 1 in 1,000 get COVID-19 daily - May 2021
- Many supplements appear to fight COVID-19 – vitamin D cited 52 times – May 2021
- COVID-19 deaths 1.5X less likely if more than 40 ng of vitamin D – US VA – April 2021
- Growing consensus: COVID-19 symptoms are due to infected blood vessels - April 2021
- COVID-19 while pregnant increased many infant health problems by 1.5X – April 29, 2021 Pregnancy
- Multiple Sclerosis patients had fewer COVID-19 problems (Note: many MSers take Vitamin D) – April 30, 2021
- Problems with vaccine use during a pandemic - Dr. Bossche interview with transcript - April 22, 2021
- Vitamin D supplementation and high levels reduce COVID-19 deaths in elderly – Review April 17, 2021
- Co-Epidemic of Obesity and COVID-19 (a co-epidemic of Vitamin D not mentioned) – April 2021
- Vitamin D fights many health symptoms, including COVID-19: Dr. Mahtani video and transcript - April 2021
- COVID-19 vaccines look good in the short term, but probably not good for the long term
- COVID-19 while pregnant is not good (increased risk of dying by 22X) – April 2021 Pregnancy
- COVID-19 increased chance of death within 6 months by 1.6X, even if not hospitalized – April 2021
- Elderly nutrition and COVID-19 – systematic review July 2021
- Hospitalized children with COVID-19 and inflammation had lower vitamin D – March 2021
- Probablity of COVID-19 death increased 8X if had Periodionttitis
- COVID-19 risks reduced by Vitamin D, Magnesium, Zinc, Resveratrol, Omega-3, etc. (auto-updated)
- Long-haul COVID-19 - another hint that Vitamin D should help - Dec 2020
- 6X less risk of COVID-19 ICU if Vitamin D and Vit B12 and Mg – Jan 2021
- Vitamin D supplementation and high levels reduce COVID-19 deaths in elderly – Review April 17, 2021
- Severe childhood COVID-19 associated with Vitamin D deficiency (hospital in Finland) – March 2021
- Kidney patients who happened to be getting high-dose Calcitriol were 9X less likely to die of COVID-19 - April 6, 2021
- Overview of reviews of COVID-19 and vitamin D, etc. – April 2021
- Less COVID-19 infection, mortality in countries with higher Vitamin D (Asia in this case) – May 2021
- COVID-19 was the third-leading cause of death in the US, especially in those with dark skins - April 1, 2021
- Children with COVID-19 and low levels of Vitamin D have more severe cases – March 31, 2021
- Risk of COVID-19 death was 4.9 X higher if very low vitamin D – March 31, 2021 17th mortality observation
- Diabetes has many bidirectional links with COVID-19 – March 2021
- Diabetes is one of the 26 health risks identified by the CDC for getting COVID-19 - ALL of which are associated with low vitamin D
- COVID-19 was 2.6X more severe if very low Vitamin D (43 studies) – meta-analysis March 26, 2021
- To protect against COVID-19, how much vitamin D – 20 to 50 ng – March 19, 2021
- COVID-19 mortality for Parkinson’s is 1 in 5, speculates that vitamin D could help - March 18, 2021
- Prefer 40 – 60 ng of Vitamin D to minimize COVID-19 – March 17, 2021
- The lower the Vitamin D, the worse the COVID-19 (600 in Turkey)– March 2021
- COVID-19 prognostic indicators in plasma extrapolate to zero if Vitamin D is 40 to 80 ng – March 2021
- COVID public health messages 1, 2, and 3 should be - vitamin d vitamin d, vitamin d (video and transcript) - Mar 5, 2021
- COVID-19 mortality 2X higher if low Vitamin D (Mexican hospital, preprint) - March 2021
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and long-haul COVID-19
- low vitamin D, autoimmune and cytokine storms may be involved on both
- 2.1 X more COVID-19 deaths in European countries with less than 20 ng of vitamin D – March 12, 2021
- Supporting non-standard but proven ways to fight COVID-19 can result in job loss – March 2021
- 3X less likely to die of COVID-19 if good level of vitamin D (seniors in Boston)– March 8, 2021
- Low Vitamin D associated with 2.7X more severe COVID-19 – 12th MA March 5, 2021
- COVID-19 fought by Vitamin D or Heat - Drs Seheult and Patrick video - March 3, 2021
- Vitamin D Deficiency and Covid-19: Book by Drs Anderson and Grimes - July 2020
- Vitamin D recommendations for COVID-19 – Spanish Geriatrics Society – March 2021
- 250,000 FREE bottles of vitamin D to fight COVID-19 by Dr. Murray at iHerb – March 3 2021 Dr. Oz show
- Vitamin D and COVID-19 webinar - Feb 24, 2021
- Mongolia's National Vitamin D3 Program started in 2019
- COVID-19 what it is, prevention by Functional Nutrition doctor - Feb 2021
- All COVID-19 in ICU had low vitamin D, no difference in outcome if low vs very low – Feb 2021
- Low-cost Ivermectin and Vitamin D fight COVID-19 – Marik video 1 hr – Feb 18, 2021
- Low vitamin D associated with COVID-19 problems in NYC hospitals – Feb 2021
- All COVID-19 patients had low vitamin D, the lowest were more likely to die – Feb 18, 2021
- 200,000 IU of Vitamin D can not catch up when COVID-19 has a 10 day head start – RCT Feb 17, 2021
- 5X less likely to enter ICU with COVID-19 if get Calcifediol (semi-activated vitamin D) - RCT Feb 19, 2021
- Ultra-Orthodox Jews have high levels of COVID-19 (and ultra low Vitamin D ) - Feb 2021
- c19study.com/d Summary of Vitamin D and COVID studies (the following is updated automatically)
- Vitamin D can prevent severe COVID-19 in Latin America too – review Feb 1, 2021
- Vitamin D and COVID-19: 1 hour simple video - Jan 31, 2021
- Higher vitamin D in a country is associated with fewer COVID-19 cases (in Asia) Feb 3, 2021 44th association
- Vitamin-D and COVID-19: time for the profession to take a stand – Jan 20, 2021
- Roll Call of Credible Experts Advocating Vitamin D for COVID-19 - Jan 26, 2021
- Call for immediate action - Fight COVID-19 with vitamin D (up to 4,000 IU) - Jan 28, 2021
- Vitamin D, Zinc, etc. look promising for COVID-19 (Holick) – Jan 25, 2021
- Heavy Smokers 2.2 X more likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 (they typically have 10 ng less Vitamin D) Jan 25 FREE PDF
- Vitamin D plus Inositol might help pregnancies during COVID-19 – April 2021
- MATH plus protocol for COVID-19 includes Calcifediol or Vitamin D - Jan 2021
- Vitamin D supplementation fights COVID-19 – 11th meta-analysis Jan 24, 2021
- Vitamin D helps the immune system fight COVID-19 – video Jan 21, 2021
- COVID-19 2.7 X more likely to be severe if less than 8 ng of vitamin D (China) – Jan 2021
- 2.7 fewer COVID-19 hospital deaths in those having more than 30 ng of vitamin D – Mayo Jan 9, 2021
- Vitamin D Help Us Fight Infections - interview of Dr. Thakkar (transcript) Jan 20, 2021
- COVID-19 onset strongly associated with latitude in Europe (Vitamin D)– Jan 21, 2021
- France: 73 experts and 6 academies recommend vitamin D to prevent COVID-19 Jan 19, 2021
- Worse COVID-19 patients got 400,000 IU of vitamin D, deaths cut in half – Jan 14, 2021
- Vitamin D-COVID interview by Dr. Campbell of Davies (member of UK Parliament) - Jan 17, 2021
- Iranians with COVID-19 were 2.3 X more likely to die if low vitamin D – Jan 2021
- Many COVID-19 risks are associated with low vitamin D (7 studies) – Systematic Review Jan 2021
- 40 ng of Vitamin D to fight COVID 15K to 50K weekly or 100K monthly - Spanish Jan 2021
- Poor COVID-19 prognosis was 6 X more likely if low vitamin D – Jan 21, 2021
- Unraveling the roles of vitamin D status and melanin during COVID-19 (Review) Jan 11
- 30 x fewer COVID-19 deaths in those getting 400,000 IU of Vitamin D - Jan 2021
- 2.8 X fewer COVID-19 nursing home deaths if add 10,000 IU Vitamin D daily for a week (small observation)- Jan 2021
- 3.7 X less likely to die of COVID-19 if supplemented with Vitamin D - meta-analysis Jan 5, 2021
- COVID-19 test positive 4.5 X more likely if had low vitamin D test within 4 years – Jan 6, 2021
- Don’t Let COVID-19 Patients Die With Vitamin D Deficiency - Jan 5, 2021
- Less likely to test positive for COVID-19 if higher Vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 6, 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 by 80 percent - anonymous meta-analysis - Jan 5, 2021
- COVID 19 Video - Drs. Seheult and Campbell : Lessons Learned and a Look Ahead - Jan 4
- Many drugs increase ACE2 and COVID-19 (176 page review) - Dec 2020
- Italian nursing home COVID-19 – 4X less likely to die if taking Vitamin D– Dec 22, 2020
- Take 50,000 IU of Vitamin D weekly before and after COVID-19 vaccination by VItaminDWiki
- COVID-19 lung infection upsets Vitamin D genes (so more or different form of Vit D is required) - Dec 22, 2020
- COVID-19 Disease and Vitamin D: A Mini-Review – Dec 15, 2020
- French Consensus – 200,000 IU of Vitamin D if get COVID-19 – Dec 22, 2020
- Rational approach to COVID-19: 50k-100k of Vitamin D weekly – Dec 2020
- Shift workers 2X more likely to get COVID-19 (low Vitamin D) - Dec 2020
- COVID-19 plus pneumonia in ICU with low vitamin D equaled Death - Dec 2020
- Excellent on-going analysis of Vitamin D and COVID-19 publications
- Those getting intermittent vitamin D were 7 X less likely to die of COVID-19 - Dec 11, 2020
- COVID-19 patients with low vitamin D had far fewer natural killer cells – Dec 2020
- COVID-19 Vitamin D: Overview of Evidence by Dr. Seheult (Video and transcript) - Dec 10, 2020
- 75 articles indicate that Vitamin D should fight COVID-19 – Evidence Review Dec 10, 2020
- COVID-19 Vitamin D: Overview by Dr. in Sri Lanka (Video and transcript) - Dec 8, 2020
- Vitamin D recommended to fight COVID-19 by 2 groups – Dec 7, 2020
- Vitamin D helps athletes while reducing their COVID-19 risk - Dec 4, 2020
- 5X more likely to test positive for COVID-19 if low vitamin D in previous 5 years (900,000 people) - Dec 4, 2020
- 5.8 X more likely to die of COVID-19 if low vitamin D - Systematic Review Dec 3, 2020
- Evidence of Vitamin D fighting COVID-19 etc. - take 4,000 IU if less than 20 ng (UK) – Dec 1, 2020
- 3.8 X higher risk of COVID-19 death if low vitamin D – Belgium Nov 25, 2020
- Hyperglycemic 2X more likely to have severe COVID-19 - Nov 2020 Diabetes
- A Medical School COVID-19 protocol includes Vitamin D for all phases – Marik Nov 2020
- Fight COVID-19 without drugs or vaccines, Vitamin D is the single most-studied way – Nov 2020
- Hospital COVID-19 observation: 7X more likely to live if more than 20 ng of vitamin D– Nov 19, 2020
- Higher vitamin D associated with fewer cases and deaths in India Nov 2020
- COVID-19 defeated 3x faster by 420,000 IU Vitamin D nanoemulsion – RCT Nov 12, 2020
- 9X COVID-19 survival in nursing home if had 80,000 IU dose of vitamin D in previous month – Oct 2020
- Rate of COVID-19 test positive is 40 pcnt lower if high vitamin D (192,000 people) - Holick Sept 2020