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COVID infection (without hospitalization) – 1.7X more likely to die in 6 months if low Vitamin D – March 2024


Association between vitamin D deficiency and post-acute outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Eur J Nutr. 2024 Mar;63(2):613-622. doi: 10.1007/s00394-023-03298-3 PDF can be rented at DeepDyve
Jheng-Yan Wu # 1 2 3, Mei-Yuan Liu # 1 4 5 6, Wan-Hsuan Hsu 7, Ya-Wen Tsai 8, Ting-Hui Liu 9, Po-Yu Huang 10, Min-Hsiang Chuang 10, Szu-En Chin 11, Chih-Cheng Lai 12 13

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Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and post-acute outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Methods: This retrospective study used the TriNetX research network to identify COVID-19 patients between January 1 and November 30, 2022. Patients were matched using propensity score matching (PSM) and divided into VDD (< 20 ng/mL) and control (≥ 20 ng/mL) groups. The primary outcome was a composite of post-COVID-19 condition (identified by ICD-10 code), all-cause emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalization, and death during the follow-up period (90-180 days) after the diagnosis of COVID-19.

Results: From an initial recruitment of 42,674 non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and known 25(OH)D status, a VDD group of 8300 was identified and propensity matched with 8300 controls. During the follow-up period, the VDD group had a higher risk of the primary outcome than did the control group [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.122; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.041-1.210].
The VDD group also had a

  • higher risk of all-cause ED visits (HR = 1.114; 95% CI = 1.012-1.226),
  • all-cause hospitalization (HR = 1.230; 95% CI = 1.105-1.369), and
  • all-cause death (HR = 1.748; 95% CI = 1.047-2.290)

but not post-COVID-19 condition (HR = 0.980; 95% CI = 0.630-1.523), individually.

Conclusion: Among the COVID-19 patients, VDD might be associated with a higher risk of all-cause ED visits, hospitalization, and death during the post-acute phase.


VitaminDWiki - 57 studies in both categories Virus and Mortality

This list is automatically updated


VitaminDWiki - Excess deaths - many studies


Note: COVID also reduces Vitamin D Receptor activation, which results in less D getting to cells

COVID variants protect themselves by deactivating different VDR variants– March 2023

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
20882 COVID all cause death.png admin 29 Feb, 2024 275.29 Kb 33
20881 all cause death.png admin 29 Feb, 2024 54.48 Kb 35