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Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome of COVID in Children 3X more likely if low Vitamin D – Feb 2023

Can Serum 25 hydroxy Vitamin D Levels Predict the Severity of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children and COVID-19?

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol . 2023 Feb 16. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2023.2022-10-1
Yildiz Ekemen Keles 1, Dilek Yilmaz 2, Selin Tasar 1, Gulnihan Ustundag 1, Aslihan Sahin 1, Aysegul Elvan Tuz 1, Aslihan Arslan Maden 1, Ahu Kara Aksay 1, Ayfer Colak 3, Eda Karadag Oncel 1

Objective: To determine the clinical significance of serum 25 hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels in pediatric patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) and compare the vitamin D levels of these patients with those patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls.

Methods: This study was designed for pediatric patients who were aged 1 month to 18 years between July 14 and December 25, 2021. Fifty-one patients with MIS-C, 57 who were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 60 controls were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as a serum 25 OH vitamin D level of less than 20 ng/mL.

Results: The median serum 25 (OH) vitamin D was 14.6 ng/mL in patients with MIS-C, 16 ng/mL in patients with COVID-19, and 21.1 ng/mL in the control group (p<0.001). Vitamin D insufficiency was present in 74.5% (n=38) of patients with MIS-C, 66.7% (n=38) of patients with COVID-19, and 41.7% (n=25) of the controls (p=0.001). The percentage of four or more affected organ systems was 39.2% in patients with MIS-C. The correlation between the number of affected organ systems and serum 25 (OH) vitamin D levels was evaluated in patients with MIS-C and there was a moderate negative correlation (r= -0.310; p=0.027). A weak negative correlation was found between the severity of COVID-19 and serum 25 (OH) vitamin D (r= -0.320, p=0.015).

Conclusion: It was found that vitamin D levels were insufficient in both groups and correlated with the number of affected organ systems of MIS-C and the severity of COVID-19.
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