Association of Vitamin D Levels With Incident All-Cause Dementia in Longitudinal Observational Studies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
J Prev Alzheimers Dis, 7 (1), 14-20 2020. DOI: 10.14283/jpad.2019.44
A Kalra 1, A L Teixeira, B S Diniz
Items of Cognition and Meta-analysis
- Alzheimer’s Disease risk is 1.9 X higher if Vitamin D deficient- meta-analysis Feb 2020
- Alzheimer’s Disease risk is 1.3X higher if Vitamin D deficient – meta-analysis Nov 2019
- Mental disorders fought by Omega-3 etc. - meta-meta-analysis Oct 2019
- Alzheimer's risk increased 7 percent for every 4 ng decrease in Vitamin D– meta-analysis Nov 2018
- Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's reduced by higher levels of Vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2018
- Poor cognition 26 percent more likely if low Vitamin D (29 studies) – meta-analysis July 2017
- Dementia risk factor is increased by 1.5 if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 2017
- Omega-3 helps childhood cognition – meta-analysis April 2016
- Poor cognition associated with low vitamin D in elderly (Asians now too) – meta-analysis March 2016
- Cognitive decline in elderly slowed by Omega-3 – meta-analysis May 2015
- Alzheimer’s disease 21 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Aug 2015
- Parkinson's and Alzheimer's: associations with vitamin D receptor genes and race – meta-analysis July 2014
- Brain (Alzheimer’s) worked better with Vitamin D intervention – meta-analysis July 2013
- Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases associated with low vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2013
- Alzheimer's Disease more likely with low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2012
- Alzheimer disease associated with 2.5 ng less vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2012
- Cognitive Impairment 2.4X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2012
Alzheimer's and Vitamin D Genes
- Alzheimer’s is associated with all 7 of the genes which restrict vitamin D from getting to tissues – Sept 2018
Alzheimer's and Vitamin D Cofactors
- Omega-3 index of 6 to 7 associated with best cognition in this study – Nov 2019
- Senior cognition poor if low vitamin D and low Magnesium intake – June 2019
- Dementia less likely with increased levels of Magnesium etc.
Alzheimers-Cognition - Overview starts with
- FACT: Cognitive decline is 19X more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Dementia is associated with low vitamin D levels.
- FACT: Alzheimer’s 21 % more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Alzheimer's Disease is 4X less likely if less likely if high vitamin D
- FACT: Every single risk factor listed for Alzheimer's Disease is also a risk factor for low vitamin D levels
- FACT: Elderly cognition gets worse as the elderly vitamin D levels get even lower (while in senior homes)
- OBSERVATION: Reports of increased vitamin D levels result in improved cognition
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D receptor gene – 2012
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer's Disease has been seen to halt when vitamin D was added.
- OBSERVATION: 39 vitamin D and Alz. or Cognition lntervention trials as of Sept 2018
- OBSERVATION: 2 Meta-analysis in 2012 agreed that Alzheimer's Disease. associated with low vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 50X increase in Alzheimer's while decrease in vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Vitamin D reduces Alzheimer’s disease in 11 ways
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s cognition improved by 4,000 IU of vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Plaque removed in mice by equiv. of 14,000 IU daily
- FACT: Vitamin D is extremely low cost and has very very few side effects
- CONCLUSION: Everyone concerned about cognitive decline or Alzheimer's Disease should take vitamin D
- PREDICTION: By 2024 Omega-3 and high dose Vitamin D will be found to reverse Alzheimer's in humans
- As of 2018 that combination has worked well with Multiple Sclerosis, Sleep, and Cluster Headaches
- All items in category Cognition and vitamin D
Background: The role of vitamin D is not only limited to bone health and pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Evidence now suggests that it is also involved in the development of various dementias and Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Objective: To carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between vitamin D levels and increased risk of incident all-cause dementia in longitudinal studies.
Design: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using the electronic bibliographic databases PubMed and Scopus.
Setting: Prospective cohort studies.
Participants: Community-dwelling older adults.
Measurements: Vitamin D serum concentrations were categorized in three groups: normal levels (>50 nmol/L), insufficient levels (25 - 49.9 nmol/L), and deficient levels (<25 nmol/L). We performed a meta-analysis using the general inverse variance method to calculate the pooled risk of AD and all-cause dementia according to vitamin D levels. Random-effects or fixed-effect model were used to calculate the pooled risk based on the heterogeneity analysis.
Results: Five studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled risk of all-cause dementia and AD was significantly higher in those with deficient serum vitamin D level compared to those with normal level (1.33, CI95% [1.15, 1.54], and 1.87, CI95% [1.03, 3.41], respectively). Those with insufficient level also had a higher pooled risk of all-cause dementia and AD, but the strength of association was less robust (1.14 CI95% [1.02, 1.27] and 1.25, CI95% [1.04 - 1.51], respectively).
Conclusion: We found a gradient effect for the risk of all-cause dementia and AD according to the vitamin D level, with higher risk in those in the deficient levels group and intermediate risk in those with insufficient levels. Our findings were limited by the relatively small number of studies included in the meta-analysis and their geographic restriction.