American Geriatric Society, First published: 31 July 2017. DOI: 10.1111/jgs.15012
Alicia M. Goodwill PhD, Cassandra Szoeke PhD
Cognitive category starts with the following
Very brief summary of Cognitive decline
Treatment : Vitamin D intervention slows or stops progression
Prevention : Many observational studies - perhaps Vitamin D prevents
Omega-3 both prevents and treats cognition
Wonder the benefits if both Vitamin D AND Omega-3 were to be used
see also Alzheimers-Cognition - Overview
Overview Parkinsons and Vitamin D
Search VitaminDWiki for dementia anywhere in text 1190 items Jan 2019
Overview Schizophrenia and Vitamin D
Search VitaminDWiki for "WHITE MATTER" 53 items as of Jan 2017
37 minute podcast Vitamin D and the brain Vitamin D Council Sept 2014
Includes discussion by Dr. Cannell and Dr. David Llewellyn
- Methadone cognition improved by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 2 weeks – RCT May 2019
- Schizophrenia reduced by biweekly 50,000 IU Vitamin D and probiotics – RCT Feb 2019
- Cognitive function of adult women in Turkey improved in 3 months with 3 dollars of Vitamin D – not an RCT Jan 2019
- Amyloid brain plaque both prevented and removed by high vitamin D (in mice) – Aug 2018
- Cognition improved a tiny amount with 400 IU of vitamin D (not a surprise) – RCT Oct 2018
- 9,000 dollar prize for RCT which found cognition improved after taking 4,000 IU of Vitamin D for 18 weeks – May 2018
- Senior cognition improved somewhat by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D (if initially less than 30 ng) – RCT April 2017
- Vitamin D and Glutamine reduced Trauma Center deaths by half – March 2017
- Mental health intervention trials using enough vitamin D for long enough found benefits – Jan 2017
- Visual memory improved a bit by vitamin D if start with less than 30 ng – RCT Jan 2017
- Cognition of Alzheimer’s patients improved by daily 4,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Jan 2015
- 2,000 IU of vitamin D reduced schizophrenia chance by 77 percent (male infants) - 2004
- Better memory if take lots of vitamin D (senior rats) – May 2015
- Severe Alzheimer's delayed by 1 year with vitamin D intervention – March 2014
- Vitamin D aided progesterone in reducing traumatic brain injury – RCT Dec 2012
- Age-related cognitive decline in rats mitigated by Vitamin D intervention – RCT Oct 2012
- Alzheimer's risk increased 7 percent for every 4 ng decrease in Vitamin D– meta-analysis Nov 2018
- Poor cognition 26 percent more likely if low Vitamin D (29 studies) – meta-analysis July 2017
- Dementia risk factor is increased by 1.5 if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 2017
- Omega-3 helps childhood cognition – meta-analysis April 2016
- Poor cognition associated with low vitamin D in elderly (Asians now too) – meta-analysis March 2016
- Cognitive decline in elderly slowed by Omega-3 – meta-analysis May 2015
- Alzheimer’s disease 21 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Aug 2015
- Parkinson's and Alzheimer's: associations with vitamin D receptor genes and race – meta-analysis July 2014
- Brain (Alzheimer’s) worked better with Vitamin D intervention – meta-analysis July 2013
- Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases associated with low vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2013
- Alzheimer's Disease more likely with low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2012
- Alzheimer disease associated with 2.5 ng less vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2012
- Cognitive Impairment 2.4X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2012
With an aging population and no cure for dementia on the horizon, risk factor modification prior to disease onset is an urgent health priority. Therefore, this review examined the effect of low vitamin D status or vitamin D supplementation on cognition in midlife and older adults without a diagnosis of dementia.
Design: Systematic review and random effect meta-analysis.
Observational (cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort) studies comparing low and high vitamin D status and interventions comparing vitamin D supplementation with a control group were included in the review and meta-analysis.
Studies including adults and older adults without a dementia diagnosis were included.
Medline (PubMed), AMED, Psych INFO, and Cochrane Central databases were searched for articles until August 2016. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessed methodological quality of all studies.
Twenty-six observational and three intervention studies (n = 19–9,556) were included in the meta-analysis. Low vitamin D was associated with worse cognitive performance (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.14–1.35) and cognitive decline (OR = 1.26, CI = 1.09–1.23); with cross-sectional yielding a stronger effect compared to longitudinal studies. Vitamin D supplementation showed no significant benefit on cognition compared with control (SMD = 0.21, CI = −0.05 to 0.46).
Observational evidence demonstrates low vitamin D is related to poorer cognition; however, interventional studies are yet to show a clear benefit from vitamin D supplementation. From the evidence to date, there is likely a therapeutic age window relevant to the development of disease and therefore vitamin D therapy. Longitudinal lifespan studies are necessary to depict the optimal timing and duration in which repletion of vitamin D may protect against cognitive decline and dementia in aging, to better inform trials and practice towards a successful therapy.
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