Journal of Human Hypertension , (26 March 2015) | doi:10.1038/jhh.2015.10
V Majumdar, P Prabhakar, G B Kulkarni and R Christopher
The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and stroke was cross-sectionally evaluated in the high-risk Asian Indian population. Age- and gender-matched, 239 ischemic stroke patients and 241 control subjects were recruited. Vitamin D status was estimated by measuring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D) levels. After multivariate adjustment for a range of potential covariates in a logistic regression model, an inverse association was found between serum 25(OH)D concentration and risk of ischemic stroke: subjects with severely low 25(OH)D levels (less than or equal to 9.33 ng ml−1) were found to be at 3.13-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), (1.22–8.07)) increased risk of ischemic stroke as compared with those with high levels. Adjustment for systolic blood pressure levels was found to abrogate this association (odds ratio (OR)=2.00, 95% CI=0.61–6.50). On stratification, a pronounced association was found between low 25(OH)D and risk of ischemic stroke in hypertensives, OR=13.54, 95% CI=1.94–94.43 as compared with no association in non-hypertensives, (Pinteraction=0.04).
We conclude that high blood pressure partly explains the association between 25(OH)D levels and ischemic stroke. Presence of hypertension amply aggravates the risk of ischemic stroke associated with low vitamin D levels. Meticulous management of hypertension, regular monitoring of serum 25(OH)D levels and treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency, particularly in hypertensive subjects, could help in effective prevention of stroke.
Vitamin D, Hypertension, and Ischemic Stroke in 116 655 Individuals From the General Population: A Genetic Study 2017
Hypertension. 2017 Jul 31. pii: HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09411. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09411. [[Epub ahead of print]
Afzal S1, Nordestgaard BG2.
Observational studies indicate that low concentrations of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are associated with high blood pressure, hypertension, and ischemic stroke. However, whether these associations are causal remain unknown. A total of 116 655 white individuals of Danish descent from the general population were genotyped for genetic variants in DHCR7 and CYP2R1 affecting plasma 25(OH)D concentrations; 35 517 had plasma 25(OH)D measurements. Primary outcomes were blood pressure, hypertension, and ischemic stroke. Median follow-up for incident ischemic stroke was 9.3 years (range, 1 day-33.6 years). DHCR7/CYP2R1 allele score was as expected associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration (F=328 and R2=1.0%). A genetically determined 10 nmol/L lower 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-1.17) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure and a 0.36 (95% CI, 0.08-0.63) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure with corresponding observational estimates of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.50-0.68) and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.35-0.45) mm Hg. The odds ratio for hypertension was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.97-1.08) for a genetically determined 10 nmol/L lower 25(OH)D with a corresponding observational odds ratio of 1.06 (95% CI, 1.05-1.07). The odds ratio for ischemic stroke was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.86-1.13) for a genetically determined 10 nmol/L decrease in 25(OH)D with a corresponding observational odds ratio of 1.03 (95% CI, 1.01-1.05). Genetic and observational low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with higher blood pressure, as well as with hypertension consistent with causal relationships. Because observational but not genetic low 25(OH)D concentration was associated with ischemic stroke, and as the CIs overlapped, we can neither support nor exclude a causal relationship.
PMID: 28760944 DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09411
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