Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 26, Issue 8, August 2016, Pages 663–673
M. Golzaranda, S. Shab-Bidarb, G. Koochakpoorc, R. Speakman Jd, e, , , K. Djafariana, ,
- We evaluated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a meta-analysis.
- Vitamin D3 supplementation had no effect on SBP and DBP.
- Vitamin D3 as daily therapy, dose > 800 IU/d, duration <6 months and in subjects =50 years old reduced both SBP and DBP.
- Vitamin D3 supplementation in combination with calcium supplementation significantly elevated SBP and DBP.
Background and aims
Previous randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation (VD3S) on blood pressure have generated inconsistent results. We evaluated the effect of VD3S on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in a meta-analysis.
Literature searches of PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, and Google scholar for publications in English were conducted up to April 2015. RCTs that assessed the effect of VD3S on SBP and DBP were selected.
A total of 30 RCTs with 41 arms including 4744 participants were included. The mean duration of the studies was 5.6 ± 4.0 months, and doses of VD3S varied between 200 and 12,000 IU/day. VD3S had no effect on SBP (-0.68 mmHg, 95%CI: -2.19 to 0.84), and DBP (-0.57 mmHg, 95%CI: -1.36 to 0.22). Subgroup analysis revealed that daily vitamin D3 therapy at a dose of >800 IU/day for <6 months in subjects =50 years old reduced both SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). In addition, VD3S showed hypotensive effects in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients, but a hypertensive effect in overweight and obese subjects. However, after excluding overweight and obese subjects, VD3S significantly reduced SBP and DBP. VD3S in combination with calcium supplementation significantly elevated SBP (3.64 mmHg, 95%CI: 3.15–4.13) and DBP (1.71 mmHg, 95%CI: 1.25–2.18). No evidence of publication bias was found. The effects of VD3S on blood pressure depend on dose of supplementation, treatment regimens, trial duration, and population subgroup. Supplementation may be beneficial at daily doses >800 IU/day for <6 months in subjects =50 years old.
- Overview Hypertension and Vitamin D Overview
- Hypertension associated with genes which reduce vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2014
- Hypertension 2X more likely when vitamin D levels lower than 14 ng – meta-analysis May 2012
- Vascular dementia (after strokes) 32X more likely in Hypertensives with low vitamin D – Oct 2015
- Stroke is 13.5 X more likely if low vitamin D and high blood pressure – March 2015
- Hypertension (both systolic and diastolic) reduced with 2,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT June 2014
- Hypertension 1.5X more likely if low level of Magnesium - Oct 2014
- Hypertension 5 X more likely if low Vitamin D, A, Calcium and Magnesium – June 2016
- Hypertension is associated with low vitamin D in some groups – meta-analysis April 2015