Toggle Health Problems and D

Vitamin D of 32 to 60 ng is needed before, during, and after pregnancy – Dec 2012

Implications of maternal vitamin D deficiency for the fetus, the neonate and the young infant.

Eur J Nutr. 2012 Dec 9.
Principi N, Bianchini S, Baggi E, Esposito S.
Pediatric Clinic 1, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Commenda 9, 20122, Milan, Italy.

BACKGROUND: It has recently been demonstrated that vitamin D (VD) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation can give rise to problems in mothers and their children.

AIM: To discuss the implications of VD deficiency during pregnancy and the best VD supplementation to use in order to avoid risks for the mother and child.

METHODS: PubMed was used to select all of the clinical studies published in the last 15 years concerning VD deficiency in pregnant women and its impact on the fetuses, neonates and infants, as well as the use of VD supplementation during pregnancy.

RESULTS: Several studies have suggested that VD deficiency is associated with possible major outcomes in the preconception period, during pregnancy, perinatally and in childhood. A 25(OH)D concentration of >32 and <50-60 ng/mL seems to be associated with the lowest risk of disease, and the administration of 2,000 IU/day to pregnant and breastfeeding women seems to maintain adequate 25(OH)D levels.

However, not all the experts agree with these conclusions because some of them do not think that VD deficiency can really cause extraskeletal manifestations and consider that the traditionally suggested 400-600 IU/day can be enough to permit an adequate bone development.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increasing amount of data seems to suggest that pregnant women need a greater amount of VD than recommended in the past, further studies are needed to determine how much VD has to be given to assure a regular evolution of the pregnancy and an adequate development of the fetus and the young child.

Deficiency Risk Factors


See also VitaminDWiki

Optimum category starts with
The RDA is barely enough for the bones to survive.
   Need an optimal level for the body to thrive

99 items in Optimum Vitamin D category

Example pages


Ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby - take Vitamin D before conception has the following
Start Vitamin D soon if pregnant VDW 9923

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
1813 Low vitamin D outcomes.jpg admin 12 Dec, 2012 74.94 Kb 1791
1812 Deficiency risk factors.jpg admin 12 Dec, 2012 66.42 Kb 2242
1811 Vitamin D before, during, and after pregnancy.pdf admin 12 Dec, 2012 277.86 Kb 2009