Vitamin D effects on musculoskeletal health, immunity, autoimmunity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, fertility, pregnancy, dementia and mortality-A review of recent evidence.
Autoimmun Rev. 2013 Mar 28. pii: S1568-9972(13)00040-2. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2013.02.004.
Pawel Pludowski a p.pludowski at czd.pl
Michael F. Holick b,
Stefan Pilzc, d,
Carol L. Wagner e,
Bruce W. Hollis e,
William B. Grant f,
Yehuda Shoenfeld g,
Elisabeth Lerchbaum c,
David J. Llewellyn h,
Katharina Kienreich c,
Maya Soni h
a Department of Biochemistry, Radioimmunology and Experimental Medicine, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland
b Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
c Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Graz, Austria
d Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
e Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Research Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
f Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
g Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Incumbent of the Laura Schwarz-Kipp Chair for Research of Autoimmune Diseases, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
h University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom
BACKGROUND: Optimal vitamin D intake and its status are important not only for bone and calcium-phosphate metabolism, but also for overall health and well-being. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency as a global health problem are likely to be a risk for wide spectrum of acute and chronic illnesses.
METHODS: A review of randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and other evidence of vitamin D action on various health outcomes.
RESULTS: Adequate vitamin D status seems to be protective against
- musculoskeletal disorders (muscle weakness, falls, fractures),
- infectious diseases,
- autoimmune diseases,
- cardiovascular disease,
- type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus,
- several types of cancer,
- neurocognitive dysfunction and mental illness, and other diseases, as well as
- infertility and
- adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes.
Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is associated with all-cause mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Adequate vitamin D supplementation and sensible sunlight exposure to reach optimal vitamin D status are among the front line factors of prophylaxis for the spectrum of disorders. Supplementation guidance and population strategies for the eradication of vitamin D deficiency must be included in the priorities of physicians, medical professionals and healthcare policy-makers.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. PMID: 23542507
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