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- Fish consumption in multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational and clinical studies
- Statistically significant Meta-analyses
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Fish consumption in multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational and clinical studies
Ann Transl Med . 2023 Feb 15;11(3):152. doi: 10.21037/atm-22-6515.
Hailiang Zhao1,2#, Min Wang1#, Xiaojuan Peng1,3#, Lu Zhong1#, Xiongxiu Liu1, Ying Shi1, Yuting Li1, Yanfang Chen1, Shaohui Tang1 tangshaohui206 at 163.com.
- 1 Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China;
- 2 Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, China;
- 3 Department of Endocrinology, Liuzhou People’s Hospital, Liuzhou, China
Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to be associated with numbers of health benefits, and which can be uptake from fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current evidence of associations between consumption of fish and diverse health outcomes. Here, we performed an umbrella review to summarize the breadth, strength, and validity of the evidence derived from meta-analyses and systematic reviews of fish consumption on all health outcomes.
Methods: The methodological quality of the included meta-analyses and the quality of the evidence were assessed by the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) tools, respectively. The umbrella review identified 91 meta-analyses with 66 unique health outcomes, of which
- 32 outcomes were beneficial,
- 34 showed nonsignificant associations
- and only one was harmful (myeloid leukemia).
Results: A total of 17 beneficial associations
- [all-cause mortality, prostate cancer mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality,
- esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), glioma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), oral cancer,
- acute coronary syndrome (ACS), cerebrovascular disease,
- metabolic syndrome,
- age-related macular degeneration (AMD),
- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD),
- Crohn’s disease (CD),
- triglycerides, vitamin D, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and multiple sclerosis (MS)],
and eight nonsignificant associations [colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), prostate cancer, renal cancer, ovarian cancer, hypertension, ulcerative colitis (UC), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)] were evaluated as moderate/high quality of evidence. According to dose-response analyses, consumption of fish, especially fatty types, seems generally safe at one-two servings per week and could exert protective effects.
Conclusions: Fish consumption is often associated with a variety of health outcomes, both beneficial and harmless, but only about 34% of the associations were graded as based on a moderate/high quality of evidence, and additional multicenter high quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a large sample size are needed to verify these findings in the future.
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