Eating Fish – 17 health benefits (Omega-3 and perhaps Vitamin D) – umbrella review Feb 2023

Fish consumption in multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational and clinical studies

Ann Transl Med . 2023 Feb 15;11(3):152. doi: 10.21037/atm-22-6515.
Hailiang Zhao1,2#, Min Wang1#, Xiaojuan Peng1,3#, Lu Zhong1#, Xiongxiu Liu1, Ying Shi1, Yuting Li1, Yanfang Chen1, Shaohui Tang1

  • 1 Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China;
  • 2 Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, China;
  • 3 Department of Endocrinology, Liuzhou People’s Hospital, Liuzhou, China

Statistically significant Meta-analyses





Cardiovascular Disease


Metabolic Syndrome







Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to be associated with numbers of health benefits, and which can be uptake from fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current evidence of associations between consumption of fish and diverse health outcomes. Here, we performed an umbrella review to summarize the breadth, strength, and validity of the evidence derived from meta-analyses and systematic reviews of fish consumption on all health outcomes.

Methods: The methodological quality of the included meta-analyses and the quality of the evidence were assessed by the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) tools, respectively. The umbrella review identified 91 meta-analyses with 66 unique health outcomes, of which

  • 32 outcomes were beneficial,
  • 34 showed nonsignificant associations
    • and only one was harmful (myeloid leukemia).

Results: A total of 17 beneficial associations

  • [all-cause mortality, prostate cancer mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality,
  • esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), glioma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), oral cancer,
  • acute coronary syndrome (ACS), cerebrovascular disease,
  • metabolic syndrome,
  • age-related macular degeneration (AMD),
  • inflammatory bowel disease (IBD),
  • Crohn’s disease (CD),
  • triglycerides, vitamin D, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and multiple sclerosis (MS)],

and eight nonsignificant associations [colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), prostate cancer, renal cancer, ovarian cancer, hypertension, ulcerative colitis (UC), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)] were evaluated as moderate/high quality of evidence. According to dose-response analyses, consumption of fish, especially fatty types, seems generally safe at one-two servings per week and could exert protective effects.

Conclusions: Fish consumption is often associated with a variety of health outcomes, both beneficial and harmless, but only about 34% of the associations were graded as based on a moderate/high quality of evidence, and additional multicenter high quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a large sample size are needed to verify these findings in the future.

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VitaminDWiki - Omega-3 helps many health problems

379 Omega-3 items in category Omega-3 helps with: Autism (9 studies), Depression (29 studies), Cardiovascular (32 studies), Cognition (48 studies), Pregnancy (39 studies), Infant (31 studies), Obesity (13 studies), Mortality (5 studies), Breast Cancer (5 studies), Smoking, Sleep, Stroke, Longevity, Trauma (12 studies), Inflammation (18 studies), Multiple Sclerosis (9 studies), VIRUS (12 studies), etc
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36+ VitaminDWiki pages with FISH in the title

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Items found: 36
Title Modified
Eating Fish – 17 health benefits (Omega-3 and perhaps Vitamin D) – umbrella review Feb 2023 27 Feb, 2023
Less muscle loss associated with eating more fish (Omega-3, Vitamin D, Magnesium, etc) – Jan 2020 30 Jan, 2020
Eating fish improves cognition (Omega-3 fish during pregnancy in this case) - Oct 2019 06 Nov, 2019
Fish in school lunches added 36 IU of vitamin D and raised blood level in winter by 2 ng – Oct 2015 03 Oct, 2019
Multiple Sclerosis 40 percent less likely if consume tinned fish (Vitamin D and Omega-3) – Sept 2019 30 Sep, 2019
The False Promise of Fish Oil Supplements (nope) Aug 2019 22 Aug, 2019
Pre-Multiple Sclerosis 40 percent less likely if eat canned fish – Aug 2019 22 Aug, 2019
ADHD children eat less fatty fish (Omega-3 again) – May 2019 19 Jun, 2019
Breast Cancer reduced 20 percent by fish (Omega-3) – meta-analysis Feb 2019 05 Mar, 2019
Farmed fish have 2X less Omega-3, 4X less Vitamin D – May 2017 18 Nov, 2018
Fish consumption (Omega-3) reduced death rates (421,000 people, 16 years) - July 2018 21 Jul, 2018
Menopause 3 years later in women eating fatty fish (Omega-3) – April 2018 07 May, 2018
Another Nail in the Coffin for Fish Oil Supplements (nope) – JAMA April 2018 18 Apr, 2018
Fish oil increased Vitamin D levels, krill oil decreased them – RCT Jan 2018 27 Jan, 2018
Vitamin D levels in Alaska are decreasing – does less fish mean less health – Aug 2017 05 Sep, 2017
Importance of Vitamin D and fish rarely mentioned during midwife-led prenatal booking visits – July 2017 07 Aug, 2017
Fish (Omega-3, Vitamin D) as Medicine for Rheumatoid Arthritis – June 2017 21 Jun, 2017
High level of Mercury in umbilical cord was 2.9 times more likely if eat fish instead of vitamin D supplements – March 2017 04 Mar, 2017
Fatty Fish in diet increases vitamin D level a few nanograms – meta-analysis Sept 2015 10 Dec, 2016
Alaskan natives now eat far less fish and have far lower levels of vitamin D – July 2016 29 Jul, 2016
Hypothesis - oil spill reduces sunlight to plankton which reduces Vitamin D to fish - June 2016 05 Jul, 2016
Multiple Sclerosis risk reduced 46 percent by Omega-3 derived from fish (1 gram) – Sept 2015 13 Mar, 2016
Popular supplements 1 Vitamin D, 2 fish oil, 3 CoQ10, 4 multivitamins 5 probiotics - Feb 2016 27 Feb, 2016
Vitamin A and dioxin-like compounds in fish liver, etc may block vitamin D – July 2012 31 May, 2015
Japanese men eating small fish were 32 percent less likely to get diabetes – Aug 2011 06 Mar, 2015
Supplements survey: Fish oil 1st, Vitamin D 4th, Magnesium 6th, Calcium 7th - March 2015 01 Mar, 2015
Farmed fish not have enough vitamin D to increase levels – RCT Feb 2014 27 Jan, 2015
Greenlanders – higher vitamin D if eat more Inuit foods (fatty fish, etc) – Aug 2013 15 Aug, 2014
Elderly 3X more likely to have 30 ng of vitamin D if frequently eat fatty fish, eggs – Aug 2013 15 Aug, 2014
More vegetables or fish, less Cancer – June 2014 15 Jul, 2014
Health professionals: about 10X more were using Vitamin D, fish oil, folic acid by 2006 – March 2014 13 Jun, 2014
Off topic: Healthcare Needs Insurance Companies Like a Fish Needs a Bicycle 09 Nov, 2012
A fish a day keeps the doctor away – Japan 2002 04 May, 2011
Fish need vitamin D and C for their bones – Dec 2010 09 Jan, 2011
Fish oil and vitamin D reduced breast cancer in rats – June 2010 07 Jul, 2010
Some fish can see in UV – Feb 2010 05 Jul, 2010

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