Vitamins and Hormones. Volume 117, 2021, Pages 239-252, https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.vh.2021.06.001
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Vitamin D can inhibit enveloped virus (e.g. Corona, Herpes, Zoster, Epstein, Hepatitis, RSV) – March 2011
SARS, SARS-COV2, and Dengue are enveloped
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Dengue, an acute febrile illness which in some cases requires hospitalization and occasionally a fatal disease, caused by dengue virus is a potential threat to the public health systems throughout the world. Approved antivirals are not available for treating dengue. Immunomodulators, that can reduce inflammation which if not treated properly results in vascular leakage, are being attempted as therapeutics against severe dengue. Vitamin D, an immunomodulatory hormone, with both antiviral and immunomodulatory effects, is an appropriate choice for investigation as a potential drug against dengue.
Investigations of vitamin D levels by many studies have suggested vitamin D levels as a potential marker for predicting severe dengue. In-vitro studies have shown that 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), active form of vitamin D, can reduce the expression of dengue virus entry receptors, restrict the viral replication and can modulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in dengue virus infected cells.
The results from in-vitro studies also have cautioned that insufficient levels of vitamin D supplementation might increase the virus replication. Available evidence suggests vitamin D based therapeutics against dengue and provides ray of light for treating dengue patients but, the available evidence needs to be supported by beneficial outcomes in clinical trials.
Table of Contents
2. Synthesis of vitamin D and its mode of action
3. Circulating levels of vitamin D in DENV infected subjects
4. Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D on the immune response to DENV
5. Vitamin D, a double-edged sword in dengue disease (low D ==> increases DENV)
6. Vitamin D receptor agonists: A novel therapeutic strategy against DENV
7. Vitamin D receptor gene variants and dengue
8. Clinical trials investigating the effects of vitamin D supplementation in reducing severe dengue