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The use of Vitamin D to prevent prostate cancer doubled in a decade – May 2019

J Urol. 2019 May 15:101097JU0000000000000336. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000000336
Zuniga KB1,2, Zhao S3, Kenfield SA3, Cedars B4, Cowan JE3, Van Blarigan EL3,5, Broering JM3, Carroll PR3, Chan JM3,5.

To explore prevalence and trends of self-reported complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among patients with prostate cancer (PCa) using the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURETM).

Between 1996-2016, 7,989 CaPSURE participants completed questionnaires on use of nearly 70 CAM types. Participants were defined as users if they ever indicated CAM use. To evaluate trends among patients with newly diagnosed PCa, we considered CAM use within 24 months of diagnosis and calculated percent change in CAM use between groups defined by year of diagnosis (n = 7,696).

Fifty-six percent of patients with PCa reported CAM use on at least one questionnaire. Multivitamin and omega-3 fatty acid use was common (40% and 24%, respectively). Compared to non-users, greater proportions of CAM users were college-educated, had a higher household income, and lived in the West and Midwest. Median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis was 5.8 (IQR 4.4-8.4) among users and 6.2 (IQR 4.7-10.1) among non-users (p < 0.01). Between those diagnosed in 1996-2000 and 2011-2016, CAM use increased +128% (24% to 54%). Comparing participants diagnosed in 2006-2010 and 2011-2016, a large increase was seen in supplemental vitamin D (+108%) and a large decrease was seen in supplemental vitamin E (-48%) use.

Many patients with PCa reported CAM use. Multivitamins and omega-3 fatty acids were commonly used, and Vitamin D use increased dramatically from 2006-2010 to 2011-2016. These data can guide clinical discussions and decision-making, such as nutritionist referral, and help prioritize future research.