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Microplastics now causing problems in most life forms - many studies

Note: "Microplastics" = 100 nm to 5 mm in size    Nanoplastics 1 to 100 nm in size
   but many groups seem to now consider "Microplastics" = 1 nm to 5 mm

As of June 2024, Vitamin D has been proven to reduce microplastic problems only in Zebrafish,
   Perhaps during 2024, there will be evidence of Vitamin D fighting microplastics in mice,
     and perhaps in 2025 vitamin D will be found to fight microplastics in humans.
The founder of VitaminDWiki has taken many steps to reduce microplastics at home

  1. Filter tap water that is consumed (Zero Filter)
  2. Eliminated all plastic food containers
  3. Use HEPA air filters that capture even nanoplastics - as well as COVID and other viruses
  4. Stop using plastic-covered paper plates in the microwave
  5. Transfer frozen dinners to non-plastic containers before putting the food into the microwave

Summary of this page by Perplexity AI - March 28, 2024

The article from VitaminDWiki, dated March 28, 2024, discusses the pervasive issue of microplastics and their impact on various life forms, including humans. It highlights several studies that have explored the toxic effects of nanoplastics (NPs) exposure, particularly through the dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. The article emphasizes the lack of research focused on mitigating these effects.
One of the key points in the article is a study that investigated the potential role of vitamin D in counteracting the toxicity caused by nanoplastics. In this study, fish were fed diets with varying levels of vitamin D to determine its impact. The results showed that a diet high in vitamin D could reduce the accumulation of polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) in the brains of zebrafish. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe that PS-NPs had accumulated in the zebrafish's brain and intestine, causing damage to the brain's blood-brain barrier basement membrane and vacuolization in intestinal goblet cells and mitochondria. The high concentration of vitamin D in the diet was found to mitigate these effects.
The article also references other studies and reviews that have been conducted on the medical implications of microplastics. These include a chart detailing studies of microplastics in humans from December 2020, a review from March 2024 on microplastics and nanoplastics in atheromas and cardiovascular events, and a note on the potential link between microplastics and autism risk during pregnancy, which could be reduced with the addition of vitamin D. Furthermore, it mentions a study from November 2023 that suggested microplastics might be a cause of Parkinson's disease, with nanoplastics linked to changes in brain proteins associated with the condition

Human Toxicity of Nano- and Microplastics - book chapter behind paywall - June 2024

Arely A. Cruz Salas, Maribel Velasco Perez, Ana Laura Tecorralco Bobadilla, Alethia Vázquez Morillas, Rosa María Espinosa Valdemar
https://doi.org/10.1002/9781394238163.ch15 $10 to rent the chapter

The toxicity of microplastics to human beings has raised global concern because of the ubiquity of these emergent pollutants in the environment and their entrance into trophic chains. This chapter reviews the advances and challenges in assessing toxicity in humans based on the analysis of basic concepts of toxicology and recent research results. The challenges and scope of applying animal studies, cell- and tissue-based toxicology assays, in silico or computational models, tissue engineering, organ-in-chip engineering, and human dosing studies are discussed. The analysis of the results of toxicity studies with nano- and microplastics, based on the revision of 85 research articles, showed that toxicity tests were mainly performed with mice and human cells, while polystyrene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polyvinyl chloride were the most common plastics tested.
The main results regarding

  • particle uptake,
  • cell viability,
  • stress response,
  • cancer,
  • genomic effects, and
  • toxicity in the reproductive system are described.

While the results show, in most cases, a negative effect associated with the presence of micro- and nanoplastics, differences in methodologies and research approaches make it difficult to establish clear cause–effect relationships.

Microplastics and Fertility

Exposure to microplastics and human reproductive outcomes: A systematic review - Jan 2024

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Microplastics: A Threat for Male Fertility (mice so far) - March 2021

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Toxicity of microplastics and nanoplastics: invisible killers of female fertility and offspring health - Aug 2023

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Microplastics found to affect rat semen etc. (no data on humans yet) - June 2024

Blood, Sweat and Tears: The struggle for Human Rights in the Age of Microplastics
Batchelor thesis: Ballentine, Maya
Table of contents includes
Impact of microplastics on human health………..……………………………9
Impact of microplastics on male fertility and reproduction………………….13
Impact of microplastics on female fertility and reproduction………………..15
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Plastic takeaway food containers may cause human intestinal damage (200,000 particles per cm2 when heated) – June 2024

Journal of Hazardous Materials https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2024.134866 PDF behind paywall
Tianyue Jin a, Yaxuan Liu a, Honghong Lyu b, Yuhe He c, Hongwen Sun a, Jingchun Tang a, Baoshan Xing d

The microplastics and organic additives formed in routine use of plastic takeaway food containers may pose significant health risks. Thus, we collected plastic containers made of

  • polystyrene,
  • polypropylene,
  • polyethylene terephthalate,
  • olylactic acid and simulated two thermal usages, including hot water (I) and microwave treatments (M).

Nile Red fluorescence staining was developed to improve accurate counting of microplastics with the aid of TEM and DLS analysis. The quantity of MPs released from thermal treatments was determined ranging from 285.7 thousand items/cm2 to 681.5 thousand items/cm2 in containers loaded with hot water with the following order: IPS>IPP>IPET>IPLA, while microwave treatment showed lower values ranging from 171.9 thousand items/cm2 to 301.6 thousand items/cm2. In vitro toxicity test using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells indicated decrease of cell viability in raw leachate, resuspended MPs and supernatants, which might further lead to cell membrane rupture, ROS production, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, the leachate inhibited the expression of key genes in the electron transport chain (ETC) process, disrupted energy metabolism. For the first time, we isolate the actually released microplastics and organic substances for in vitro toxicity testing, and demonstrate their potential impacts to human intestine.

Environmental Implication
As a new type of contaminants, microplastics are becoming a great concern in environment. However, microplastics released from plastic food containers and its impact on human health is not clearly understood. This study investigated the formation and characteristics of microplastics from different types of plastic takeaway food containers after loading hot food and microwave heating. Microplastics and dissolved contaminants were separated and their respective toxic effects on Caco-2 cells were examined. Our research highlights new route of environmental risk of microplastics, and is useful for environmental management on plastic takeaway containers that may have been ignored before.

Plastic take-out containers may release microplastics and organic substances during daily usage, both of which can cause individual and combined cytotoxic effects on human colon adenocarcinoma cells Caco-2.

online includes section snippits and references

Good news: clear, black, shinny plastics degrade into microplastics far more slowly (not adsorb UV) - May 2024

Why blue and red packaging turns into microplastic so much faster - Fast Company
The study: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2024.123701

  • Colourants in plastics effect the rate of environmental degradation and microplastic evolution.
  • Red, blue and green samples degraded but black, white and silver were largely unaffected.
  • Remote sampling showed long-lived samples were black/white and most microplastics were coloured.
  • looking at a beach - "Most items were black or white and samples up to 45 years old were found with relatively little environmental degradation other than mild abrasion. It appears that carbon and titanium dioxide colourants protect the HDPE polymer from photolytic degradation. While anthraquinone, phthalocyanine and diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments were found to enable UV light to degrade the polymer leading to brittle plastics, promoting the formation of microplastics, it is likely that other pigments that do not strongly absorb in the UV will result in similar degradation."

Microplastics and Their Implications for Human Health: A Scientific Exploration – May 2024

African Journal of Biological Sciences Jharna Maiti /Afr.J.Bio.Sc. 6(9) (2024) doi: 10.33472/AFJBS.6.9.2024.2681-2695
Jharna Maiti1, Amit Joshi1, Sanyogita Shahi1*
1. Kalinga University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, 492101
Corresponding author e-mail: drsanyogitashahi at gmail.com

As they are so common in the environment, microplastics pose serious health risks to people. This scientific investigation explores their origins, movements, and effects. Synthetic fibres, microbeads, and plastic manufacture are examples of primary sources; the fragmentation of bigger polymers is a secondary source. Nurdles are released during the plastic manufacturing process, wastewater from personal care items contains microbeads that infiltrate aquatic bodies, and contamination is caused by synthetic fibers shed from textiles. Larger polymers break apart as a result of external stresses like sunshine and mechanical forces. Microplastics find their way into ecosystems via soil, streams, atmospheric deposition, and the food chain. Deposition occurs on both terrestrial and aquatic surfaces as a result of atmospheric transport caused by wind and precipitation. Surface runoff and wastewater discharge contribute to accumulation in rivers, which affects aquatic life and may make its way into the food chain. Runoff and atmospheric deposition cause soil to accumulate, which has an impact on soil quality and agricultural output. Microplastics biomagnified in the food chain, putting human health at risk from eating polluted seafood. Determining human exposure and related health hazards requires an understanding of the origins and pathways of microplastics. Thorough risk assessments and mitigation tactics are necessary to reduce negative impacts on the environment and public health. To reduce pollution and protect public health, it is imperative to address the manufacture of plastics, regulate the presence of microplastics in consumer products, and support sustainable alternatives. This investigation emphasizes the necessity of multidisciplinary study and teamwork to address the intricate problems brought on by microplastics and safeguard environmental integrity and public health.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Micro and nanoplastics in plaque: 4.5 X higher risk of cardiovascular events and death - May 2024

Examine.com   New England Journal of Medicine behind paywall until Sept 2024

Fish ingesting microplastics have gut, reproduction, brain injury etc, problems – May 2024

Impact of microplastics and nanoplastics on fish health and reproduction
Aquaculture https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2024.741037 PDF is behind a paywall
lRaja Aadil Hussain Bhat a b, M. Junaid Sidiq c, Ilhan Altinok b d e


  • Naturally occurring MPs and NPs may not be toxic to fish*
  • Virgin MPs and NPs are toxic to aquatic organisms
  • Virgin MPs and NPs have an impact on fish health and reproductive potential*
  • Intestinal dysbiosis is common after exposure to virgin MP
  • MPs have a role in the transfer of pathogens and antibiotic-resistant genes

Microplastic (MP) contamination is a worldwide threat to aquatic organisms and human health. Aquatic environments are ideal and ultimate sinks for the MPs. They are negatively impacting the physical and physiological fitness of various fish species. Virgin MPs and nanoparticles (NPs) compromise immune, digestive, and reproductive systems, induce intestinal dysbiosis, and may have transgenerational effects. Even prolonged exposure to small ambient levels of MPs in aquatic environments has been found to be associated with such hazards. Moreover, plastisphere formation in aquatic habitats provides an excellent source and carrier for transporting contaminants, antimicrobial-resistant genes, and pathogens. Numerous studies utilize artificially produced virgin MPs and NPs containing toxic chemicals. When these plastics interact with water and organisms, they release harmful compounds, leading to the promulgation of toxic effects. However, macroplastics undergo chemical degradation in nature, producing micro- and nano-sized particles that appear to have varying degrees of adverse impact on aquatic organisms, due to their presence in substantial diluting environments. The work done so far suggests that evaluations of MP impact in aquatic habitats should be performed at a mass scale and in diverse fish species to get a clear picture of this hazard. This article reviews the most recent literature available on the influence of virgin MPs and NPs on fish welfare, with a particular focus on their health and reproductive functions.

Plastic pollution, particularly in the form of MPs, has emerged as an urgent and significant global environmental concern (Li et al., 2021b; MacLeod et al., 2021; Williams and Rangel-Buitrago, 2022). Since the 1950s, the production of plastics has increased exponentially. Global plastic production reached a staggering 460 million metric tons (Mt) in 2019 and is projected to reach 1231 Mt. by 2060 (Forum, 2022). In 2018, China produced 107.7 Mt. of plastics, accounting for approximately 30% of global plastic production (Plastic Europe, 2019). It is estimated that approximately 11 million tons of plastic enter the oceans annually (UNEP, 2021). Plastic emission levels into aquatic habitats are predicted to range from 20 to 53 million tons annually by 2030, highlighting the alarming scale of this issue (Borrelle et al., 2020). Reports indicate that >170 trillion plastic particles are currently floating in the oceans, causing significant damage to livelihoods and ecosystem and this number is projected to triple in the next two decades (UNEP, 2021). The widespread adoption of plastic usage can be credited to its affordability, long-lasting quality, lightweight characteristics, and adaptability across diverse sectors such as food packaging, construction, automotive, electronics, sports, agriculture, healthcare, and furniture production (An et al., 2020; Europe Plastics, 2019; Osman et al., 2023).

Microplastics are smaller than 5 mm in diameter and pose notable ecological risks due to their widespread distribution throughout aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (Lusher et al., 2017b). These MPs can be categorized as either primary (originally manufactured to be <5 mm) or secondary (resulting from the decomposition of larger plastic objects) (Kershaw and Rochman, 2015). The significant growth in plastic manufacturing has resulted in massive amounts of plastic waste, a substantial portion of which eventually breaks down into MPs (Sharma and Chatterjee, 2017). On the other hand, NPs are formed from the degradation of MPs and are characterized by colloidal behavior, with a size range of 1 to 1000 nm (Gigault et al., 2018). These microscopic plastic particles can contaminate water bodies, soil, and air, leading to ecological imbalances and potential consequences for human well-being (Basri et al., 2021).

Microplastics, which originate from terrestrial activities such as plastic production, tire wear, agriculture, and plastic litter, enter aquatic environments through routes such as atmospheric deposition, coastal interactions, and runoff. Comprehensive solutions are crucial to tackling the complexity of MP pollution in aquatic ecosystems (Gesamp, 2016; Klein et al., 2015). Microplastics are present in all habitats of the open ocean and enclosed seas, including beaches, water columns surface waters, and the deep seafloor (Lusher, 2015). Wind-induced vertical movement within the water column, plays a crucial role in determining the dispersion of MPs within marine environments (Kukulka et al., 2012). Once released, MPs can remain in the environment for prolonged periods, causing detrimental effects on wildlife, ecosystems, and potentially human health (MacLeod et al., 2021; Ritchie and Roser, 2018). Microplastics can be ingested by a variety of organisms, including plankton (Carbery et al., 2018; Gunaalan et al., 2023; Rakib et al., 2023), fish (Abbasi et al., 2018; Bhuyan, 2022; Collard et al., 2017; Gao et al., 2023; Renzi et al., 2019), bivalves (Abidli et al., 2023; Khanjani et al., 2023), birds (Bilal et al., 2023; Brookson et al., 2019; Lu et al., 2023; Navarro et al., 2023), and mammals (Liu et al., 2023; Zantis et al., 2021), resulting in numerous adverse effects such as reduced reproductive success, impaired growth, and disruption of physiological processes Fish may consume MPs through two main pathways: direct ingestion (primary ingestion), in which they unintentionally perceive the MPs as food and ingest them, or accidental consumption (Worm et al., 2017), or indirectly (secondary digestion) by consuming prey that has already consumed these particles (Watts et al., 2014). The latter process, known as trophic transfer, may result in the accumulation of MPs in predators occupying higher trophic levels (Farrell and Nelson, 2013; Provencher et al., 2019; Zhang et al., 2019). On the other hand, the amount of increased MP accumulation in predators at higher trophic levels is still unknown (Carbery et al., 2018; Miller et al., 2020). Furthermore, MPs contain additives from the manufacturing process that have a prominent capacity to absorb detrimental pollutants, such as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances, from the surrounding environment. The ingestion of MPs and subsequent accumulation of these contaminants within aquatic organisms has raised concern about the potential hazards and risks associated with MPs in marine ecosystems (Lusher et al., 2017a).

Wootton et al. (2021) demonstrated that 49% of the worldwide fish samples examined for MP consumption exhibited the presence of plastic particles (average of 3.5 pieces per fish), and the prevalence of plastic ingestion was higher in North American fish as compared to fish from other geographic regions. A comprehensive literature review conducted by Galafassi et al. (2021) emphasized the widespread and concerning problem of MP pollution in freshwater environments. The review documented instances of 199 species from 29 countries ingesting plastic, with over 60 research articles specifically dedicated to studying MP ingestion by wild freshwater fish. Interestingly, MPs have been found not only in the digestive tracts of fish but also in their gills, suggesting that the particles can translocate to different tissues within the organisms. Ingestion of MPs by fish poses a multifaceted threat to their health, including structural intestinal damage. It also introduces toxic substances that disrupt physiological processes (Montero et al., 2022). As a result, ingesting MPs introduces these toxicants into the fish's body, where they may cause extensive physiological disruptions such as endocrine disruption and oxidative stress. Furthermore, MPs are capable of accumulating in the digestive system, which may result in physical damage such as obstructions, inflammation, and hindrances in nutrient absorption. Thus, it is imperative to comprehensively examine the effects of MPs on fish health. Fig. 1 depicts the number of articles present in the public domain that explore the impact and presence of MPs in aquatic organisms. With escalating concerns about MP pollution and its potential effects on aquatic ecosystems, particularly fish populations, there is an urgent need for a consolidated and structured evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. This review article seeks to consolidate the current insights and knowledge available regarding the effects of MP on fish health. Moreover, we have provided detailed information about the role of MPs in the transfer of pathogens and antibiotic-resistant genes.

Section snippets
A literature search was conducted using various databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, employing different keywords such as: “fate of microplastics and nanoplastics in the environment”, “microplastics and nanoplastics in water”, “microplastics and nanoplastics in aquaculture”, “effect of microplastics in fish”, impact of microplastic on fish and “effect of plastic in fish”. The articles related to our study were screened, and finally, 210 articles, including research…

Entry and fate of MPs in fish and water
When MP trash ends up in the ocean, it undergoes photo- and biodegradation as well as physical aging (Ter Halle et al., 2017), leading to micro- and nano-scale plastic pollution (Gigault et al., 2016). Due to the slowness of these degradation processes, the flow of MPs and NPs from terrestrial settings is assumed to be the primary cause of marine pollution (Cózar et al., 2014). Chemicals are frequently added to plastic during the manufacturing process in order to impart certain desirable…

Impact of MPs and NPs on fish welfare
There is compelling evidence that consumption of MPs and NPs can have adverse effects on fish health (Table 1, Fig. 4). The majority of the research to determine the impacts of artificially produced MPs on fish has been conducted under controlled laboratory settings. The fish species used in these experiments were obtained from diverse habitats, primarily from marine environments (Ding et al., 2018; Hao et al., 2023; Hasan et al., 2023; Li et al., 2021a; Lusher et al., 2013). On the other hand, …

Synergistic effects of MPs and pathogens in fish
Virgin MPs could increase disease susceptibility in fish by impairing their immune systems (Masud and Cable, 2023). A study was done to evaluate the effect of MPs on rainbow trout exposed to Yersinia ruckeri. This study revealed how the combined impact of virgin MPs triggered the severe clinical manifestations in fish infected with Y. ruckeri (Banihashemi et al., 2022). Furthermore, the study indicates that the toxic effects of foreign substances such as virgin MPs might increase the ability of …

Synergistic effects of temperature and MPs or NPs
The intricate relationship between elevated temperatures and exposure to virgin NPs in environmental contexts has garnered considerable attention. A combination of incremental temperature rise (28, 29, 30 °C) and exposure to virgin polystyrene NPs disrupted the circadian rhythm, induced brain injury, and led to notable alterations in the levels of 18 metabolites across various pathways in zebrafish (Sulukan et al., 2022).This result implies that a one-degree temperature increase can exacerbate…

Microplastics and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) transfer
As previously mentioned, MPs are widely dispersed in marine environments and pose a variety of negative effects. In comparison to other natural materials, plastic debris poses a greater threat to the aquatic environment due to its longer physical half-life. This extended persistence makes plastics hazardous. Furthermore, since organic pollutants can adhere to plastic surfaces, plastic debris can serve as a carrier (Fig. 5) for many organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (…

Microplastics cause reproductive dysfunction in fish
The majority of aquatic organisms are found to be invariably affected by virgin MPs at some stage in their lives. Low trophic-level communities such as zooplankton, filter-feeding invertebrates and echinoderms, and fish larvae are found to have higher pathological and physiological sensitivities towards virgin MPs (do Sul and Costa, 2014). Virgin MPs have also gained importance for being one of the most potent anthropogenic factors that are reprotoxic to fish. It has been found that the…

Plastic, a remarkably versatile and utilitarian material, has become integral to modern daily life. However, excessive utilization and inadequate disposal practices result in the pervasive menace of MP pollution in aquatic ecosystems, spanning from the upper pelagic zones to the seafloor sediments. Commercially produced plastics often contain toxic materials that are incorporated during their manufacturing process. The degradation of plastics into MPs and NPs in aquatic environments, which…

Probiotics should fight microplastics problems in the gut: A Comprehensive Review - May 2024

Ieshita Pan. Suganiya Umapathy

Applications for plastic polymers can be found all around the world, often discarded without any prior care, exacerbating the environmental issue. When large waste materials are released into the environment, they undergo physical, biological, and photo-degradation processes that break them down into smaller polymer fragments known as microplastics (MPs). The time it takes for residual plastic to degrade depends on the type of polymer and environmental factors, with some taking as long as 600 years or more. Due to their small size, microplastics can contaminate food and enter the human body through food chains and webs, causing gastrointestinal (GI) tract pain that can range from local to systemic. Microplastics can also acquire hydrophobic organic pollutants and heavy metals on their surface, due to their large surface area and surface hydrophobicity. The levels of contamination on the microplastic surface are significantly higher than in the natural environment. The gut-brain axis (GB axis), through which organisms interact with their environment, regulate nutritional digestion and absorption, intestinal motility and secretion, complex polysaccharide breakdown, and maintain intestinal integrity, can be altered by microplastics acting alone or in combination with pollutants. Probiotics have shown significant therapeutic potential in managing various illnesses mediated by the gut-brain axis. They connect hormonal and biochemical pathways to promote gut and brain health, making them a promising therapy option for a variety of GB axis-mediated illnesses. Additionally, taking probiotics with or without food can reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), neuro-inflammation, neurodegeneration, protein folding, and both motor and non-motor symptoms in individuals with Parkinson's disease. This study provides new insight into microplastic-induced gut dysbiosis, its associated health risks, and the benefits of using both traditional and next-generation probiotics to maintain gut homeostasis
CONCLUSION (clipped from PDF)
At present, the main reason humans are exposed to MPs is the increasing consumption of plastic. MPs have the ability to absorb, release, and act as reservoirs for various toxic chemicals and heavy metals, allowing these toxins to enter the human body and cause serious health issues. As the concentration of MPs increases in the body, they begin to modulate several biochemical and physiological pathways by altering the gut-brain axis.
This can lead to

  • inflammatory lesions,
  • tissue degradation,
  • ROS,
  • metal imbalance,
  • changes in gut phenotype,
  • gut barrier function,
  • endocrine secretion, and
  • neurodegeneration.

While there is limited information on the stages of plastic in the human diet, it is evident that regardless of degradation, MPs contaminate the environment, enter the body through contaminated foods, and disrupt intestinal homeostasis.
Recent studies have shown that nano- and microplastics have various effects on the intestines, including

  • disrupting intestinal homeostasis,
  • altering gut permeability, and
  • affecting levels of cytokine secretion.

Since the human diet plays a significant role in disrupting gut microbes and causing disorders, probiotics are a suitable and compassionate therapeutic target to manage gut dysbiosis and
protect bi-directional axes such as the

  • gut-brain axis,
  • gut-liver axis,
  • gut-lung axis, and
  • gut-skin axis.

The altered gut induced by MP consumption also leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, and reproductive issues. Probiotics can effectivelycontrol ROS, inflammation, and reproductive problems.
In conclusion, probiotics play a crucial role in managing MP-induced gut dysbiosis. With the assistance of gene editing techniques, both conventional and next-generation probiotics may address many health-related concerns in the future. Given the increasing use of synthetic materials, further research is necessary to fully understand the harm that microplastics pose to human health and the environment, as well as to facilitate their complete eradication through cutting-edge gene editing technologies.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Impact of microplastics on human health and aquatic species - May 2024

Iliass Achoukhi1*, Yahya El Hammoudani1, Khadija Haboubi1, Lahcen Benaabidate2, Abdelhak Bourjila1, Mustapha El Boudammoussi1, Mohamed Moudou1, Hatim Faiz1, Abdelaziz Touzani1 and Fouad Dimane1

Microplastics (MPs) have emerged as a pervasive environmental challenge, with significant implications for both marine ecosystems and human health. This study delves into the adverse effects of MPs, highlighting their physical, chemical, and biological impacts on marine life, particularly fish.
These impacts include physical injury, oxidative stress, and altered immune responses, which can have cascading effects on marine biodiversity and ecosystem functionality.
The review also underscores the risk MPs pose to humans through

  • direct exposure,
  • via consumption of contaminated seafood,
  • inhalation, or dermal contact,

potentially leading to

  • oxidative stress,
  • cytotoxic effects, and
  • disturbances in immune function.

By comprehensively examining existing research and identifying knowledge gaps, this study aims to underline the urgent need for targeted research strategies. These strategies should focus on elucidating the complex interactions between MPs and biological systems, assessing long-term health implications, and developing effective mitigation measures. Through detailed analysis of methodologies, results, and existing literature, this review aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the multifaceted impact of microplastics, thereby guiding future research directions and informing policy decisions for the protection of marine ecosystems and human health.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

150 plastic plants and chemical industries = Cancer Alley: cancer rates 50 X higher - May 2024

"150 plastic plants and chemical industries. The cancer rates in this area are 50 times higher than the national average."
'We're All Plastic People Now': A Groundbreaking Documentary = Mercola
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
56 minute video

Chart of studies of microplastics in humans - 2020

Details further down this page

Review of many microplastic medical studies - substack March 2024

Robert Malone

  • Microplastics and Nanoplastics in Atheromas and Cardiovascular Events- March 2024 (see below)
  • Raman Microspectroscopy Detection and Characterisation of Microplastics in Human Breastmilk - June 2022
  • Impact of Microplastics and Nanoplastics on Livestock Health: An Emerging Risk for Reproductive Efficiency - March 2023
  • Exposure to microplastics and human reproductive outcomes: A systematic review - April 2024
  • Isolation and identification of microplastics in infant formulas - A potential health risk for children - May 2024
  • A Children's Health Perspective on Nano- and Microplastics - Jan 2022
  • 266 studies of microplastic toxicity

Health risk of human exposure to microplastics: a review - March 2024

Environmental Chemistry Letters https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-024-01727-1 References online Can be read in DeepDyve - free trial
Kuok Ho Daniel Tang, Ronghua Li, Zhi Li & Dun Wang

Microplastics are emerging contaminants that have been detected recently in most environmental and biological systems, yet their health risk for humans has not been clearly summarized. Here we review human health risk associated with exposure to microplastics with focus on methods of exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose–response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Hazards include direct hazards, hazards from contaminants released by microplastics, and hazards from microplastic interactions with surrounding contaminants.

  • trigger oxidative stress,
  • disrupt metabolism,
  • interfere with gut microflora and gastrointestinal functions,
  • disrupt hepatic, cardiopulmonary and immune systems, and
  • degrade reproductive health.

Some additives leached from microplastics such as phthalates are endocrine disruptors and thus impact reproductive health. The interaction of microplastics with other pollutants in the environment induces varied hazards following synergistic or antagonistic effects.

Microplastics appear to impact human organs ($65 paywall) - March 2024

The possible impacts of nano and microplastics on human health: lessons from experimental models across multiple organs
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B https://doi.org/10.1080/10937404.2024.2330962 35 pages
Bernardo Lannes Monteiro Fontes,Lorena Cristina de Souza e Souza,Ana Paula Santos da Silva de Oliveira,Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca,Marinaldo Pacifico Cavalcanti Neto & Cintia Rodrigues Pinheiro

The widespread production and use of plastics have resulted in accumulation of plastic debris in the environment, gradually breaking down into smaller particles over time. Nano-plastics (NPs) and microplastics (MPs), defined as particles smaller than 100 nanometers and 5 millimeters, respectively, raise concerns due to their ability to enter the human body through various pathways including ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. Various investigators demonstrated that these particles may produce

  • physical and chemical damage to human cells, tissues, and organs,
  • disrupting cellular processes,
  • triggering inflammation and oxidative stress, and
  • impacting hormone and neurotransmitter balance.

In addition, micro- and nano-plastics (MNPLs) may carry toxic chemicals and pathogens, exacerbating adverse effects on human health. The magnitude and nature of these effects are not yet fully understood, requiring further research for a comprehensive risk assessment. Nevertheless, evidence available suggests that accumulation of these particles in the environment and potential human uptake are causes for concern. Urgent measures to reduce plastic pollution and limit human exposure to MNPLs are necessary to safeguard human health and the environment. In this review, current knowledge regarding the influence of MNPLs on human health is summarized, including toxicity mechanisms, exposure pathways, and health outcomes across multiple organs. The critical need for additional research is also emphasized to comprehensively assess potential risks posed by degradation of MNPLs on human health and inform strategies for addressing this emerging environmental health challenge. Finally, new research directions are proposed including evaluation of gene regulation associated with MNPLs exposure.

Microplastics Linked to Heart Attack, Stroke and Death - Scientific American March 2024

Use incognito web page to access it without a subscription

Plaques were removed: those having microplastics had a 4.5 X increased risk of stroke, heart attack, etc. - March 2024

Plastic Found Inside More Than 50% of Plaques From Clogged Arteries - Science Alert   the following is the text without hyperlinks

Now, a small study in Italy has found shards of microplastics in fatty deposits surgically removed from patients who had an operation to open up their clogged arteries – and reported their health outcomes nearly 3 years later.

Removing fatty plaques from narrowed arteries in a procedure called a carotid endarterectomy reduces the risk of future strokes.

The team behind this new study, led by Raffaele Marfella, a medical researcher at the University of Campania in Naples, wondered how the risk of stroke – as well as heart attacks and death – compared between patients who had microplastics in their plaques and those who did not.

Following 257 patients for 34 months, the researchers found nearly 60 percent of them had measurable amounts of polyethylene in plaques pulled from their fat-thickened arteries, and 12 percent also had polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in extracted fat deposits.

PVC comes in both rigid and flexible forms, and is used to make water pipes, plastic bottles, flooring, and packaging. Polyethylene is the most commonly produced plastic, used for plastic bags, films, and bottles, too.

In the study, patients with microplastics in their excised plaques were 4.5 times as likely to have experienced a stroke, non-fatal heart attack or died from any cause after 34 months than people who had no detectable microplastics in the plaques that surgeons had removed.

The amount of microplastics, and even smaller particles called nanoplastics, was measured using a technique called pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and their presence confirmed using another method, stable isotopes analysis, which can distinguish between the carbon of human tissues and that of plastics made from petrochemicals.

Microplastics were also visible under powerful microscopes: The researchers observed plastic fragments with jagged edges inside immune cells called macrophages, and within the fatty plaques. Examining the tissue samples, the team also found higher levels of inflammatory markers in patients with microplastics in their plaques.

Based on New England Journal of Medicine study published March 7, 2023
Microplastics and Nanoplastics in Atheromas and Cardiovascular Events
https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2309822 PDF is behind paywall

Study was described in a 8 minute video March 2024 - 2 charts from PDF

Dr Brad Stanfield

Half as much Collagen (needed for mechanical stability) in plaques with microplastics


Effects of Microplastics and Nanoplastics in Agro-ecosystems and Human Health: A review - Jan 2024

Vingnanam Journal of Science Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Page/Article: 39-52 DOI: 10.4038/vingnanam.v18i2.4229
Rathiverni Rajaratnam. Nadeeka U JayawardanaEmail Nadeeka U Jayawardana Sri Lanka

Life on land and ocean is being threatened by microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs). Despite, the fate and effects of MPs and NPs in agro-ecosystems have not been clearly understood. However, recent studies showed that these polymers can be transported and accumulated in food crops, humans, and other organisms. The introduction of plastics into terrestrial land has led to the accumulation of MPs and NPs in food crops. The bioaccumulation has been found in stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Thus, causes a change in physicochemical activities in plants that leads to a decline in crop production. Further, MPs accumulation in human placenta and breast milk have been evidently proven in recent studies. MPs themselves are being potential vectors of pollutants, including anti-resistance genes, harmful microbes, heavy metals, and carcinogenic compounds. Alarmingly, these pollutants can be horizontally transferred to organisms along with the MPs and remain intact throughout the food chain. Poor solid waste management, inadequacy in plastic recycling, and application of MPs contaminated compost in agricultural practices are the major entry points of MPs into the agro-ecosystem. The collection of these results in this study will help both on-going and upcoming investigations on bioaccumulation of MPs and NPs in crops and their movement through the food chain.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Detection of Various Microplastics in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery - July 2023

"Microplastic specimens were collected from 15 cardiac surgery patients, including 6 pericardia, 6 epicardial adipose tissues, 11 pericardial adipose tissues, 3 myocardia, 5 left atrial appendages, and 7 pairs of pre- and postoperative venous blood samples. "
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c07179 PDF behind paywall

Microplastics reduced bio-avalability of Zinc and Magnesium essential for vitamin D metabolism (in mice) - July 2023

Reduced dietary Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Mg bioavailability but increased Fe bioavailability with polyethylene microplastic ingestion in a mouse model: Changes in intestinal permeability and gut metabolites
Science of The Total Environment Volume 885, 10 August 2023, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.163853 PDF behind paywall
Shan Chen a, Shi-Wei Li b, Xue-Yuan Gu a, Lena Q. Ma c, Dong-Mei Zhou a, Hong-Bo Li a

Microplastics emerge as a new environmental and human health crisis. Minimal research exists on effects of microplastic ingestion on the oral bioavailability of minerals (Fe, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Mg) in the gastrointestinal tract via impacting intestinal permeability, mineral transcellular transporters, and gut metabolites. Here, mice were exposed to polyethylene spheres of 30 and 200 μm (PE-30 and PE-200) in diet (2, 20, and 200 μg PE g−1) for 35 d to determine the microplastic effects on mineral oral bioavailability.
Results showed that for mice fed diet amended with PE-30 and PE-200 at 2–200 μg g−1, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Mg concentrations in the small intestine tissue were 43.3–68.8 %, 28.6–52.4 %, 19.3–27.1 %, 12.9–29.9 %, and 10.2–22.4 % lower compared to control mice, suggesting hampered bioavailability of these minerals.
In addition, Ca and Mg concentrations in mouse femur were 10.6 % and 11.0 % lower with PE-200 at 200 μg g−1. In contrast, Fe bioavailability was elevated, as suggested by significantly (p < 0.05) higher Fe concentration in the intestine tissue of mice exposed to PE-200 than control mice (157–180 vs. 115 ± 7.58 μg Fe g−1) and significantly (p < 0.05) higher Fe concentrations in liver and kidney with PE-30 and PE-200 at 200 μg g−1. Following PE-200 exposure at 200 μg g−1, genes coding for duodenal expression of tight junction proteins (e.g., claudin 4, occludin, zona occludins 1, and cingulin) were significantly up-regulated, possibility weakening intestinal permeability to Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Mg ions. The elevated Fe bioavailability was possibly related to microplastic-induced greater abundances of small peptides in the intestinal tract, which inhibited Fe precipitation and elevated Fe solubility. Results showed that microplastic ingestion may cause Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Mg deficiency but Fe overload via altering intestinal permeability and gut metabolites, posing a threat to human nutrition health.

Note by VitaminDWiki: Topical Magnesium would not be blocked by microplastics

Microplastics and human health: Integrating pharmacokinetics - April 2023

https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2023.2195798 FREE PDF

Microplastics as an Emerging Threat to the Global Environment and Human Health - July 2023


  • "Exposure to microplastics can also pose potential health risks to humans, including respiratory and digestive problems, as well as disrupt sleep, contribute to obesity, and increase the risk of diabetes."


Microplastics and human health: Integrating pharmacokinetics - April 2023

https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2023.2195798 FREE PDF

The Plastic Within: Microplastics Invading Human Organs and Bodily Fluids Systems - Nov 2023

Environments 2023, 10(11), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments10110194
by Christian Ebere Enyoh 1,*ORCID,Arti Devi 1,Hirofumi Kadono 1,Qingyue Wang 1ORCID andMominul Haque Rabin 1,2ORCID

  • 1 Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama City 338-8570, Japan
  • 2 Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh

Microplastics (MPs), small plastic particles resulting from the degradation of larger plastic items and from primary sources such as textiles, engineered plastic pellets, etc., have become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. As their prevalence in the natural environment grows, concerns about their potential impacts on human health have escalated.
This review discusses current research findings on the presence of MPs in organs such as the

  • liver,
  • blood,
  • heart,
  • placenta,
  • breast milk,
  • sputum,
  • semen,
  • testis, and
  • urine,

while also exploring plausible mechanisms of translocation. Furthermore, the review emphasizes the importance of understanding the potential toxicological effects of MPs on various physiological processes within these organs and their broader implications for human health. This review also examines the pathways through which MPs can enter and accumulate in human organs and bodily fluids, shedding light on the intricate routes of exposure and potential health implications. It is worth noting that the invasive medical procedures may permit direct access of MPs to the bloodstream and tissues, serving as a potential contamination source. However, it is evident that a comprehensive understanding of MPs’ invasion into human organs is vital for effective mitigation strategies and the preservation of both human health and the environment.
No such attachment on this page

Microplastics contamination in food products: Occurrence, analytical techniques and potential impacts on human health - Feb 2024

Current Research in Biotechnology Feb 2024 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crbiot.2024.100190
Suman Giri a, Gopal Lamichhane b c, Dipendra Khadka d e, Hari Prasad Devkota f g

Chemically, microplastics (MPs) are synthetic materials composed of plastic monomers and additives and vary in size from 0.1 to 5000 μm. Due to their chemical stability and the widespread use of plastics for various purposes, MP contamination of the environment has increased dramatically, leading to the contamination of daily consumer products as well. Although previous studies have reported the environmental impacts of MPs, only a few studies have highlighted the occurrence of MPs in food products and their possible effects on human health. Recent investigations have identified MP particles in drinking water and other beverages, seafood, plant products, salt, sugar, and honey, raising an alarm over the safety and quality of these food items. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact of such food and other consumer goods are the common routes through which MPs may enter the human body and can have several deleterious health impacts including oxidative stress, inflammation, immunotoxicity, increased risk of neoplasia, cellular metabolism impairment, neurotoxicity, gut microbiome dysbiosis, disruption of reproductive system among others. A collective approach employing source control, recycling, biodegradable plastics, strengthening legislation, and bioremediation could be a promising and sustainable solution to control the MP pollution. The key challenge appears to standarize detection methods along with reducing the MP contamination from the food products as well as from the environment. Therefore, this review focuses on the occurrence of MPs in several food products, current methods of analysis, potential health impacts, and strategies to mitigate the widespread MP pollution. It also adds novel findings, knowledge gaps, and recommendations that can guide future research in this field.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

The potential impacts of micro-and-nano plastics on various organ systems in humans - Lancet Jan 2024

eBioMedicine 2024;99: 104901 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2023.104901
Nurshad Ali, Jenny Katsouli, Emma L. Marczylo, Timothy W. Gant, Stephanie Wright



Humans are exposed to micro-and-nano plastics (MNPs) through various routes, but the adverse health effects of MNPs on different organ systems are not yet fully understood. This review aims to provide an overview of the potential impacts of MNPs on various organ systems and identify knowledge gaps in current research.
The summarized results suggest that exposure to MNPs can lead to health effects through oxidative stress, inflammation, immune dysfunction, altered biochemical and energy metabolism, impaired cell proliferation, disrupted microbial metabolic pathways, abnormal organ development, and carcinogenicity.
There is limited human data on the health effects of MNPs, despite evidence from animal and cellular studies.
Most of the published research has focused on specific types of MNPs to assess their toxicity, while other types of plastic particles commonly found in the environment remain unstudied.
Future studies should investigate MNPs exposure by considering realistic concentrations, dose-dependent effects, individual susceptibility, and confounding factors.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

VitaminDWiki - Autism risk if toxins, heavy metals, microplastics, etc during pregnancy (unless add Vitamin D) – Feb 2024

Microplastics might be a cause of Parkinson's - Nov 2023

Nanoplastics Linked to Changes in Brain Proteins Associated With Parkinson's, Study Finds Science Alert

Reporting on
Anionic nanoplastic contaminants promote Parkinson’s disease–associated α-synuclein aggregation Science Advances, FREE PDF

Microplastics causing problems in Zebra fish - reduced by 40% if Vitamin D was added - Nov 2023

Vitamin D modulation of brain-gut-virome disorder caused by polystyrene nanoplastics exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Microbiome . 2023 Nov 27;11(1):266. doi: 10.1186/s40168-023-01680-1.
Miaomiao Teng # 1, Yunxia Li # 1, Xiaoli Zhao 2, Jason C White 3, Lihui Zhao 1, Jiaqi Sun 4, Wentao Zhu 5, Fengchang Wu 6

Background: Many studies have investigated how nanoplastics (NPs) exposure mediates nerve and intestinal toxicity through a dysregulated brain-gut axis interaction, but there are few studies aimed at alleviating those effects. To determine whether and how vitamin D can impact that toxicity, fish were supplemented with a vitamin D-low diet and vitamin D-high diet.

Results: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) accumulated in zebrafish brain and intestine, resulting in brain blood-brain barrier basement membrane damage and the vacuolization of intestinal goblet cells and mitochondria. A high concentration of vitamin D reduced the accumulation of PS-NPs in zebrafish brain tissues by 20% and intestinal tissues by 58.8% and 52.2%, respectively, and alleviated the pathological damage induced by PS-NPs. Adequate vitamin D significantly increased the content of serotonin (5-HT) and reduced the anxiety-like behavior of zebrafish caused by PS-NPs exposure. Virus metagenome showed that PS-NPs exposure affected the composition and abundance of zebrafish intestinal viruses. Differentially expressed viruses in the vitamin D-low and vitamin D-high group affected the secretion of brain neurotransmitters in zebrafish. Virus AF191073 was negatively correlated with neurotransmitter 5-HT, whereas KT319643 was positively correlated with malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the expression of cytochrome 1a1 (cyp1a1) and cytochrome 1b1 (cyp1b1) in the intestine. This suggests that AF191073 and KT319643 may be key viruses that mediate the vitamin D reduction in neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity induced by PS-NPs.

Conclusion: Vitamin D can alleviate neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity induced by PS-NPs exposure by directionally altering the gut virome. These findings highlight the potential of vitamin D to alleviate the brain-gut-virome disorder caused by PS-NPs exposure and suggest potential therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of NPs toxicity in aquaculture, that is, adding adequate vitamin D to diet. Video Abstract.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

People are now INHALING a credit card's worth of plastics each week - Sept 2023

You breathe in a credit card’s worth of microplastic every week

  • "We breathe in about 16 bits of microplastic every hour,"
  • "Experts are starting to correlate microplastics with lung inflammation, shortness of breath and a higher risk of lung cancer. Research on rats suggests that when microplastics infiltrate lung cells, they can start to jumble up cell composition. This suggests that exposure to microplastics can cause lung injury in humans, too. "

Study: people could be EATING a credit card's worth of microplastics per week- 2019


Microplastics may increase snow melt, and thus increase climate warming

Microplastics’ contribution to melting snow: A global crisis - Canadian Geographic April 2021

8 Types of Plastic Discovered in People Who Had Heart Surgery - Sept 2023

The Defender

  • "It’s believed that most plastic particles enter the human bloodstream after being ingested or inhaled via food, water, air and other sources."

Chart does not yet show microplastics decreasing Vitamin D Levels

 Download the Report from VitaminDWiki

Microplastics in fruit and vegetables

  • Micro- and nano-plastics in edible fruit and vegetables.
    The first diet risks assessment for the general population - Aug 2020 - (may not have been able to detect nanoplastics)  PDF
    • Image
  • Occurrence of Microplastics in Most Consumed Fruits and Vegetables from Turkey and Public Risk Assessment for Consumers Aug 2023 - (may not have been able to detect nanoplastics)  PDF
    • Image

100K-400K NANOplastic particles in a liter of bottled water - Jan 2024

AP News

Microplastics perturb macrophages in the lab - May 2023

The internal dose makes the poison: higher internalization of polystyrene particles induce increased perturbation of macrophages
Front Immunol. 2023; 14: May doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1092743

From abstract

  • " Using polystyrene as a model of micro and nanoplastics, with size ranging from under 100 nm to 6 microns, we have showed that although non-toxic, polystyrene nano and microbeads alter the normal functioning of macrophages in a size and dose-dependent manner. Alterations in the oxidative stress, lysosomal and mitochondrial functions were detected"

 Download the Report from VitaminDWiki

94% of US water contains microplastics


500 tons of RF chaff into the US annually, vs 878 tons of microplastics into the ocean from all washing machines US and Canada - Feb 2024

Web- seabirds, humans, baby formula, breast cancer


Rainfall in the Rocky Mountains contains microplastics - 2019

It's raining plastic in the Rockies Mother Nature Network

  • "A study from scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey has found that 90 percent of rainwater samples from eight different locations along the Rockies contained plastics."

Microplastics in Mosquitoes - Sept 2018

Microplastics are getting into mosquitoes and contaminating new food chains
In the lab they fed larva microplastics. "Plastics were retained as the mosquitoes went through different life stages"
Mosquitoes are eaten by birds and fish

Zero Water countertop filter eliminates microplastic (nanoplastic too?)

many different sizes, all models include a small meter to test the amount of dissolved solids
Removes https://waterpurificationguide.com/water-filters-that-remove-microplastics/ 99.9% of microplastics ( unclear what sizes, see chart below) and 100% of Glyphosate, Fluoride, etc.
Amazon $29, 3,000 reviews - also WalMart, Home Depot, etc.
Great 2019 review compared many filters - taste, quality, ergonomics, etc found Zero to be best
Does remove beneficial Magnesium ions from the water (10 mg/liter)
   I take daily Magnesium supplements (400 mg/day), so I do not feel the need to remineralize the water
It is not practical in areas with hard water (there is a US harness map at their website)
   the filter stops at 18 grams of dissolved solids - will not last a month if there is hard water
Uses some of the chemicals and filters used in RO systems
You can recycle 2 filters for $10 - but you pay the postage

Chart of the size of nano and microplastics removed by type of water filter - Jan 2024?

From: Water Filters That Remove Microplastics 10 types reviewed

Visualizing the amount of microplastic we eat - Dec 2019


5+ VitaminDWiki pages with BPA in title

This list is automatically updated

Your clothes can shed 700,000 microplastic fibers in a single wash - Feb 2023

Fast Company

A Detailed Review Study on Potential Effects of Microplastics and Additives of Concern on Human Health - Feb 2020

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041212
by Claudia Campanale *ORCID,Carmine MassarelliORCID,Ilaria Savino,Vito Locaputo andVito Felice Uricchio
Water Research Institute-Italian National Research Council (IRSA-CNR), Bari, BA, Italy

The distribution and abundance of microplastics into the world are so extensive that many scientists use them as key indicators of the recent and contemporary period defining a new historical epoch: The Plasticene. However, the implications of microplastics are not yet thoroughly understood. There is considerable complexity involved to understand their impact due to different physical–chemical properties that make microplastics multifaceted stressors. If, on the one hand, microplastics carry toxic chemicals in the ecosystems, thus serving as vectors of transport, they are themselves, on the other hand, a cocktail of hazardous chemicals that are added voluntarily during their production as additives to increase polymer properties and prolong their life. To date, there is a considerable lack of knowledge on the major additives of concern that are used in the plastic industry, on their fate once microplastics dispose into the environment, and on their consequent effects on human health when associated with micro and nanoplastics. The present study emphasizes the most toxic and dangerous chemical substances that are contained in all plastic products to describe the effects and implications of these hazardous chemicals on human health, providing a detailed overview of studies that have investigated their abundance on microplastics. In the present work, we conducted a capillary review of the literature on micro and nanoplastic exposure pathways and their potential risk to human health to summarize current knowledge with the intention of better focus future research in this area and fill knowledge gaps.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Microplastics Pollution as an Invisible Potential Threat to Food Safety and Security, Policy Challenges and the Way Forward - Dec 2020

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249591
by Sunusi Usman 1ORCID,Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis 1,2,*ORCID,Khozirah Shaari 1,3,Mohammad Noor Azmai Amal 4,5ORCID,Mohd Zamri Saad 5,6ORCID,Nurulfiza Mat Isa 7,8,Muhammad Farhan Nazarudin 5ORCID,Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli 4ORCID,Jumria Sutra 4 andMusa Adamu Ibrahim 4

Technological advances, coupled with increasing demands by consumers, have led to a drastic increase in plastic production. After serving their purposes, these plastics reach our water bodies as their destination and become ingested by aquatic organisms. This ubiquitous phenomenon has exposed humans to microplastics mostly through the consumption of sea food. This has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to make an urgent call for the assessment of environmental pollution due to microplastics and its effect on human health. This review summarizes studies between 1999 and 2020 in relation to microplastics in aquatic ecosystems and human food products, their potential toxic effects as elicited in animal studies, and policies on their use and disposal. There is a paucity of information on the toxicity mechanisms of microplastics in animal studies, and despite their documented presence in food products, no policy has been in place so far, to monitor and regulates microplastics in commercial foods meant for human consumption. Although there are policies and regulations with respect to plastics, these are only in a few countries and in most instances are not fully implemented due to socioeconomic reasons, so they do not address the problem across the entire life cycle of plastics from production to disposal. More animal research to elucidate pathways and early biomarkers of microplastic toxicity that can easily be detected in humans is needed. This is to create awareness and influence policies that will address this neglected threat to food safety and security.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

VitaminDWiki – Interactions with Vitamin D contains

Interactions with Vitamin D has 122 items

Various drugs decrease Vitamin D
Drug interactions with Vitamin D - many studies - Feb 2024
Antidepressants reduce cellular Vitamin D, increasing fractures, CVD, etc. - Oct 2022
Medications that appear to lower Vitamin D – Aug 2021
24 drugs that typically reduce Vitamin D levels – Review Aug 2021
Proton pump inhibitors decrease Vitamin D and Magnesium – Dec 2018
Statins and Vitamin D - many studies
Glyphosate decreases Vitamin D getting to cells in many ways
Antibiotics and Vitamin D are associated with many of the same diseases
More colas lower vitamin D by 3 ng– July 2014
A few Drugs increase Vitamin D
Contraceptives,   Probiotics
Vitamin D can decrease/increase impact of drugs
be careful of Chemotheraphy and Vitamin D
Vitamin D generally improves the efficacy of drugs while reducing their adverse effects – Jan 2020
Some Drugs decrease Vitiamin D co-factors or limit vitamin D getting to cells
Drugs which create deficiencies in Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, etc. – Sept 2017
Drugs Deplete Magnesium
Interaction of drugs with Vitamin D cofactors
Non-drugs also decrease vitamin D levels in blood and cells
Plastics, BPA, PCB and Vitamin D deficiency
Air pollution, toxins, heavy metals and smoking each result in lower Vitamin D levels – Nov 2018
Air Pollution reduces Vitamin D
Pesticides increase risk of Cancers, Alz, ALS, Asthma, ADHD, etc. (all related to low vitamin D) – Oct 2016
Smoking   Coffee
Cooked dried beans or peas

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
21344 Exposure findings.webp admin 19 Jun, 2024 39.82 Kb 4
21343 MP exposure - in human tissue.webp admin 19 Jun, 2024 35.44 Kb 4
21342 MP exposure review_CompressPdf.pdf admin 19 Jun, 2024 179.55 Kb 2
21341 Female fertility and offspring.webp admin 19 Jun, 2024 48.94 Kb 4
21340 nanoplastics, female fertility, offspring health.pdf admin 19 Jun, 2024 812.41 Kb 1
21339 reproductive dysfunction.webp admin 19 Jun, 2024 20.20 Kb 4
21338 microplastics and reproductive system_CompressPdf.pdf admin 19 Jun, 2024 447.78 Kb 0
21337 microplastics and human rights.pdf admin 19 Jun, 2024 350.21 Kb 0
21253 microplastics human2.webp admin 01 Jun, 2024 92.68 Kb 36
21252 MicroplasticsandTheirImplicationsforHumanHealthAScientificExploration_CompressPdf.pdf admin 01 Jun, 2024 374.30 Kb 2
21246 probiotics gut-brain.webp admin 30 May, 2024 45.36 Kb 36
21245 Micro plastics probiotics brain-gut_CompressPdf.pdf admin 30 May, 2024 926.97 Kb 8
21234 MP May 2024.webp admin 26 May, 2024 94.58 Kb 38
21233 microplastics on human health and aquatic species_CompressPdf.pdf admin 26 May, 2024 395.96 Kb 7
21225 plastic-people-pdf.pdf admin 25 May, 2024 184.89 Kb 8
21204 microplastics cardiovascular.webp admin 20 May, 2024 4.45 Kb 48
21167 Fish nano.webp admin 05 May, 2024 36.78 Kb 49
21041 Zebra 2023_CompressPdf.pdf admin 29 Mar, 2024 649.04 Kb 20
21030 Microplastic Hazards.png admin 28 Mar, 2024 163.66 Kb 73
21018 Microplastics human health_CompressPdf.pdf admin 23 Mar, 2024 188.37 Kb 22
20993 Microplastics chart.png admin 18 Mar, 2024 247.64 Kb 87
20992 Microplastics as an Emerging Threat_CompressPdf.pdf admin 18 Mar, 2024 297.50 Kb 27
20980 Collagen microplastics.png admin 17 Mar, 2024 122.11 Kb 93
20979 Microplastics NEJM.png admin 17 Mar, 2024 61.20 Kb 88
20867 impacts of microplastics.png admin 27 Feb, 2024 337.65 Kb 207
20866 Microplastics Feb 2024_CompressPdf.pdf admin 27 Feb, 2024 834.76 Kb 24
20865 ToC microplastics.png admin 27 Feb, 2024 8.68 Kb 212
20864 microplastics human.png admin 27 Feb, 2024 478.17 Kb 208
20863 Micoplastics Lancet_CompressPdf.pdf admin 27 Feb, 2024 282.79 Kb 27
20638 Microplastics Turkey.png admin 09 Jan, 2024 50.88 Kb 234
20637 Microplastics Turkey_CompressPdf.pdf admin 09 Jan, 2024 381.20 Kb 44
20636 fruit and vegi plastics.png admin 09 Jan, 2024 61.49 Kb 236
20635 Micro- and nano-plastics in edible fruit and vegetables_CompressPdf.pdf admin 09 Jan, 2024 213.42 Kb 39
20634 Micro and nano plastics.png admin 09 Jan, 2024 222.51 Kb 239
19625 perturbation of macrophage_CompressPdf.pdf admin 02 Jun, 2023 830.47 Kb 141
19170 nvisible Potential Threat_CompressPdf.pdf admin 01 Feb, 2023 454.16 Kb 160
19169 Microplastics health.jpg admin 01 Feb, 2023 129.73 Kb 485
19168 Potential Effects of Microplastics_CompressPdf.pdf admin 01 Feb, 2023 2.50 Mb 167
13640 Plastic Microbead bans.jpg admin 16 Mar, 2020 30.26 Kb 807
13275 Plastics 6 months.jpg admin 01 Jan, 2020 63.11 Kb 951
12110 Microplastics world map.jpg admin 12 Jun, 2019 94.22 Kb 1238
12109 Microplastics.jpg admin 12 Jun, 2019 33.50 Kb 1279
12108 Microplastics report.pdf admin 12 Jun, 2019 1.25 Mb 607