Toggle Health Problems and D

Gene mutations which restrict Vitamin D activation (CYP27B1) results in many health problems – March 2020

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase (CYP27B1) Gene: The Risk of Malignant Tumors and Other Chronic Diseases

Nutrients, 12 (3) 2020 Mar 18, DOI: 10.3390/nu12030801


CYP27B1 category listing contains the following

The CYP27B1 gene activates Vitamin D in the Kidney,    Skin,    Lungs,    Brain,   Eyes   Breasts   etc.
Poor CYP27B1 is assocated with COVID, Miscarriage,   Lupus,   Alz, Parkinson, MSA,   Rickets

CYtochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1    = 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase

What can be done if have a poor CYP27B1

  • Larger doses of Vitamin D
  • More Bio-available: Gut-friendly form, Topical form, taken with fatty meal, taken with evening meal
  • Additional sources: UV
  • Increase Vitamin D metabolism: additional Magnesium, Omega-3
    • All cytochrome P450 enzymes require Mg++ as a cofactor
  • Increase the amount of Vitamin D in the blood that gets to cells: increase activation of VDR

Vitamin D blood test misses CYP27B1 and other genes
in Visio for 2023

Every Parkinson’s brain had a gene modification that limited how much vitamin D was available (CYP27B1) – Feb 2022

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Maria Latacz 1,2, Jadwiga Snarska 3,4, Elzbieta Kostyra 1, Ewa Fiedorowicz 1, Huub FJ Savelkoul 5, Roman Grzybowski 6,7 and Anna Cieslinska 1, anna.cieslinska at uwm.edu.p. Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland; mmlatacz at gmail.com (M.L.); elzbieta.kostyra at uwm.edu.pl (E.K.); ewa.kuzbida at uwm.edu.pl (E.F.)

: Vitamin D is widely known for its roles in the promotion of apoptosis and differentiation, with simultaneous inhibition of proliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Modern literature lacks complete information on polymorphisms in CYP27B1, the only enzyme capable of vitamin D activation. This review presents gathered data that relate to genetic variants in CYP27B1 gene in correlation to multiple diseases, mostly concerning colorectal, prostate, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers, as well as on other pathologies, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, oral lichen planus, or multiple sclerosis.

Clipped from PDF
Although the enzyme CYP27B1 initially referred only to renal tissues, its presence has been also been determined in numerous other cells from different systems, including dendritic cells, parathyroid cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, keratinocyte, mammary epithelial cells, renal tubular cells, pancreatic beta cells, vascular endothelial cells, and prostate epithelial cells

Sections on
Colorectal Cancer (CRC)
Prostate Cancer
Breast Cancer
Lung Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Liver Cancer
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Vitamin-D-Dependent Rickets Type 1
Oral Lichen Planus


The process of carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process that is influenced by numerous genetic and environmental factors. It should be noted that the largest impact of the level of 25(OH)D does not come from genetic factors, but from diet and exposure to sunlight only [154]. If there is a correlation between SNPs and a specific cancer, it can only indicate a moderate risk of disease. The greatest effect of polymorphisms was observed in the case of colon cancer. When it comes to the prostate, there was only one polymorphism rs8176345 noticed in the group of African Americans. In breast cancer, a relationship was observed at rs10877012, whereas in some cases rs4646536 contributed to the occurrence of side effects during the treatment of the pathology. The risk of smallcell lung cancer underwent modifications in the case of rs3782130. The two other polymorphisms rs10877012 and rs4646536 have an impact on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV patients. There was no evidence of dependence for pancreas, thyroid, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The important role of vitamin D in the ethiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and vitamin-D- dependent rickets type 1 was based on CYP27B1 polymorphisms. A summary of the role of polymorphisms in CYP27B1 gene in the occurrence of diseases is provided in Table 1.


  1. Feldman, D.; Krishnan, A.V.; Swami, S.; Giovannucci, E.; Feldman, B.J. The role of vitamin D in reducing cancer risk and progression. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2014, 14, 342-357.
  2. Adams, J.S.; Rafison, B.; Witzel, S.; Reyes, R.E.; Shieh, A.; Chun, R.; Zavala, K.; Hewison, M.; Liu, P.T. Reg;ulation of extrarenal CYP27B1-hydroxylase. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2014, 144, 22-27.
  3. Abe, E.; Miyaura, C.; Sakagami, H.; Takeda, M.; Konno, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Yoshiki, S.; Suda, T. Differentiation of mouse myeloid leukemia cells induced by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1981, 78, 4990 994.
  4. Barbour, G.L.; Coburn, J.W.; Slatopolsky, E.; Norman, A.W.; Horst, R.L. Hypercalcemia in an anephric patient with sarcoidosis: Evidence for extrarenal generation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. N. Engl. J. Med. 1981, 305, 440^43.
  5. Provvedini, D.M.; Tsoukas, C.D.; Deftos, L.J.; Manolagas, S.C. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in human leukocytes. Science 1983, 221, 1181-1183.
  6. Colston, K.; Colston, M.J.; Feldman, D. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and malignant melanoma: The presence of receptors and inhibition of cell growth in culture. Endocrinology 1981, 108, 1083-1086.
  7. Pereira, F.; Larriba, M.J.; Munoz, A. Vitamin D and colon cancer. Endocr. Relat. Cancer 2012, 19, R51-R71.
  8. Swami, S.; Krishnan, A.V.; Wang, J.Y.; Jensen, K.; Peng, L.; Albertelli, M.A.; Feldman, D. Inhibitory effects of calcitriol on the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in nude mice: Selective modulation of aromatase expression in vivo. Horm. Cancer 2011, 2, 190-202.
  9. Swami, S.; Krishnan, A.V.; Peng, L.; Lundqvist, J.; Feldman, D. Transrepression of the estrogen receptor promoter by calcitriol in human breast cancer cells via two negative vitamin D response elements. Endocr. Relat. Cancer 2013, 20, 565-577.
  10. Krishnan, A.V.; Shinghal, R.; Raghavachari, N.; Brooks, J.D.; Peehl, D.M.; Feldman, D. Analysis of vitamin D-regulated gene expression in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells using cDNA microarrays. Prostate 2004, 59, 243-251.
  11. Zhao, X.Y.; Peehl, D.M.; Navone, N.M.; Feldman, D. 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth by androgen-dependent and androgen-independent mechanisms. Endocrinology 2000, 141, 2548-2556.
  12. Tuohimaa, P.; Lyakhovich, A.; Aksenov, N.; Pennanen, P.; Syvala, H.; Lou, Y.R.; Ahonen, M.; Hasan, T.; Pasanen, P.; Blauer, M.; et al. Vitamin D and prostate cancer. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2001, 76, 125-134.
  13. Jenkinson, C. The vitamin D metabolome: An update on analysis and function. Cell Biochem. Funct. 2019, 37, 408-423.
  14. Morrison, N.A.; Qi, J.C.; Tokita, A.; Kelly, P.J.; Crofts, L.; Nguyen, T.V.; Sambrook, P.N.; Eisman, J.A. Prediction of bone density from vitamin D receptor alleles. Nature 1994, 367, 284—287.
  15. Morrison, N.A.; Yeoman, R.; Kelly, P.J.; Eisman, J.A. Contribution of trans-acting factor alleles to normal physiological variability: Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and circulating osteocalcin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1992, 89, 6665-6669.
  16. Jolliffe, D.A.; Walton, R.T.; Griffiths, C.J.; Martineau, A.R. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vitamin D pathway associating with circulating concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and non-skeletal health outcomes: Review of genetic association studies. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2016, 164, 18-29.
  17. Deeb, K.K.; Trump, D.L.; Johnson, C.S. Vitamin D signalling pathways in cancer: Potential for anticancer therapeutics. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2007, 7, 684-700.
  18. Holick, M.F. Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007, 357, 266-281.
  19. Millen, A.E.; Bodnar, L.M. Vitamin D assessment in population-based studies: A review of the issues. Am.
  20. J. Clin. Nutr. 2008, 87, 1102S-1105S.
  21. Muindi, J.R.; Adjei, A.A.; Wu, Z.R.; Olson, I.; Huang, H.; Groman, A.; Tian, L.; Singh, P.K.; Sucheston, L.E.; Johnson, C.S.; et al. Serum Vitamin D metabolites in colorectal cancer patients receiving cholecalciferol supplementation: Correlation with polymorphisms in the vitamin D genes. Horm. Cancer 2012, 4, 242-250.
  22. Fu, G.K.; Portale, A.A.; Miller, W.L. Complete structure of the human gene for the vitamin D 1-alpha- hydroxylase, P450cl-alpha. DNA Cell Biol. 1997, 16, 1499-1507.
  23. Kitanaka, S.; Takeyama, K.; Murayama, A.; Sato, T.; Okumura, K.; Nogami, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Niimi, H.; Yanagisawa, J.; Tanaka, T.; et al. Inactivating mutations in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase gene in patients with pseudovitamin D-deficiency rickets. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998, 338, 653-661.
  24. Kong, X.F.; Zhu, X.H.; Pei, Y.L.; Jackson, D.M.; Holick, M.F. Molecular cloning, characterization, and promoter analysis of the human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999, 96, 6988-6993.
  25. Kawashima, H.; Kurokawa, K. Unique hormonal regulation of vitamin D metabolism in the mammalian kidney. Miner. Electrolyte Metab. 1983, 9, 227-235.
  26. Kawashima, H.; Torikai, S.; Kurokawa, K. Calcitonin selectively stimulates 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha- hydroxylase in the proximal straight tubule of the rat kidney. Nature 1981, 291, 327-329.
  27. Adams, J.S.; Hewison, M. Extrarenal expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-hydroxylase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2012, 523, 95-102.
  28. Christakos, S.; DeLuca, H.F. Minireview: Vitamin D: Is there a role in extraskeletal health? Endocrinology 2011, 152, 2930-2936.
  29. Cross, H.S.; Petra Bareis, P.; Hofer, H.; Bischof, M.G.; Bajna, E.; Kriwanek, S.; Bonner, E.; Peterlik, M. 25- Hydroxyvitamin D3-1a-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptor gene expression in human colonic mucosa is elevated during early cancerogenesis. Steroids 2001, 66, 287-292.
  30. Grant, W.B.; Garland, C.F. A critical review of studies on vitamin D in relation to colorectal cancer. Nutr. Cancer 2004, 48, 115-123.
  31. Giovannucci, E. The epidemiology of vitamin D and colorectal cancer: Recent findings. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 2006, 22, 2 29.
  32. Wactawski-Wende, J.; Kotchen, J.M.; Anderson, G.L.; Assaf, A.R.; Brunner, R.L.; O'Sullivan, M.J.; Margolis,
  33. K.L.; Ockene, J.K.; Phillips, L.; Women's Health Initiative Investigators; et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006, 354, 684-696.
  34. Zhang, X.; Giovannucci, E. Calcium, vitamin D and colorectal cancer chemoprevention. BestPract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2011, 25, 485-494.
  35. Tangpricha, V.; Flanagan, J.N.; Whitlatch, L.W.; Tseng, C.C.; Chen, T.C.; Holt, P.R.; Lipkin, M.S.; Holick, M.F. 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase in normal and malignant colon tissue. Lancet 2001, 357, 1673-1674.
  36. Kallay, E.; Bises, G.; Bajna, E.; Bieglmayer, C.; Gerdenitsch, W.; Steffan, I.; Kato, S.; Armbrecht, H.J.; Cross,
  37. S. Colon-specific regulation of vitamin D hydroxylases - a possible approach for tumor prevention. Carcinogenesis 2005, 26, 1581-1589.
  38. Dong, L.M.; Ulrich, C.M.; Hsu, L.; Duggan, D.J.; Benitez, D.S.; White, E.; Slattery, M.L.; Farin, F.M.; Makar, K.W.; Carlson, C.S.; et al. Vitamin D related genes, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1, and colon cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2009, 18, 2540-2548.
  39. Bises, G.; Kallay, E.; Weiland, T.; Wrba, F.; Wenzl, E.; Bonner, E.; Kriwanek, S.; Obrist, P.; Cross, H.S. 25- hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase expression in normal and malignant human colon. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 2004, 52, 985-989.
  40. Gacche, R.N. Compensatory angiogenesis and tumor refractoriness. Oncogenesis 2015, 4, e153.
  41. Moan, J.; Porojnicu, A.; Lagunova, Z.; Berg, J.P.; Dahlback, A. Colon cancer: Prognosis for different latitudes, age groups and seasons in Norway. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 2007, 89, 148-155.
  42. Wang, T.J.; Zhang, F.; Richards, J.B.; Kestenbaum, B.; van Meurs, J.B.; Berry, D.; Kiel, D.P.; Streeten, E.A.; Ohlsson, C.; Koller, D.L.; et al. Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: A genome-wide association study. Lancet 2010, 376, 180-188.
  43. McGrath, J.J.; Saha, S.; Burne, T.H.; Eyles, D.W. A systematic review of the association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2010, 121, 471-477.
  44. Bu, F.X.; Armas, L.; Lappe, J.; Zhou, Y.; Gao, G.; Wang, H.W.; Recker, R.; Zhao, L.J. Comprehensive association analysis of nine candidate genes with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels among healthy Caucasian subjects. Hum. Genet. 2010, 128, 549-556.
  45. Pettifor, J.M.; Bikle, D.D.; Cavaleros, M.; Zachen, D.; Kamdar, M.C.; Ross, F.P. Serum levels of free 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D in vitamin D toxicity. Ann. Intern. Med. 1995, 122, 511-513.
  46. Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Comprehensive molecular characterization of human colon and rectal cancer. Nature 2012, 487, 330-337.
  47. McBain, A.J.; Macfarlane, G.T. Ecological and physiological studies on large intestinal bacteria in relation to production of hydrolytic and reductive enzymes involved in formation of genotoxic metabolites. J. Med. Microbiol. 1998, 47, 407-416.
  48. Lagergren, J.; Ye, W.; Ekbom, A. Intestinal cancer after cholecystectomy: Is bile involved in carcinogenesis? Gastroenterology 2001, 121, 542-547.
  49. Meguid, R.A.; Slidell, M.B.; Wolfgang, C.L.; Chang, D.C.; Ahuja, N. Is there a difference in survival between right - versus left-sided colon cancers? Ann. Surg. Oncol. 2008, 15, 2388-2394.
  50. Meggouh, F.; Lointier, P.; Pezet, D.; Saez, S. Evidence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-receptors in human digestive mucosa and carcinoma tissue biopsies taken at different levels of the digestive tract, in 152 patients. J. Steroid Biochem. 1990, 36, 143-147.
  51. Suttie, S.A.; Shaikh, I.; Mullen, R.; Amin, A.I.; Daniel, T.; Yalamarthi, S. Outcome of right- and left-sided colonic and rectal cancer following surgical resection. Colorectal Dis. 2011, 13, 884-889.
  52. Hughes, T.A. Regulation of gene expression by alternative untranslated regions. Trends Genet. 2006, 22, 119-122.
  53. Jacobs, E.T.; Van Pelt, C.; Forster, R.E.; Zaidi, W.; Hibler, E.A.; Galligan, M.A.; Haussler, M.R.; Jurutka, P.W. CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 polymorphisms modulate vitamin D metabolism in colon cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2013, 73, 2563-2573.
  54. Meunier, B.; de Visser, S.P.; Shaik, S. Mechanism of oxidation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome p450 enzymes. Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 3947-3980.
  55. Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.; Zhou, S.F. A bioinformatics approach for the phenotype prediction of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in human cytochromes P450. Drug Metab. Dispos. 2009, 37, 977-991.
  56. dbSNP. Available online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/rs10877012 (accessed on 24 February 2020).
  57. Chia, V.; Newcomb, P.A. Calcium and colorectal cancer: Some questions remain. Nutr. Rev. 2004, 62, 115120.
  58. Dong, L.M.; Ulrich, C.M.; Hsu, L.; Duggan, D.J.; Benitez, D.S.; White, E.; Slattery, M.L.; Caan, B.J.; Potter, J.D.; Peters, U. Genetic variation in calcium-sensing receptor and risk for colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2008, 17, 2755-2765.
  59. Feskanich, D.; Ma, J.; Fuchs, C.S.; Kirkner, G.J.; Hankinson, S.E.; Hollis, B.W.; Giovannucci, E.L. Plasma vitamin D metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer in women. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2004, 13, 1502-1508.
  60. Ma, Y.; Zhang, P.; Wang, F.; Yang, J.; Liu, Z.; Qin, H. Association between vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: A systematic review of prospective studies. J. Clin. Oncol. 2011, 29, 3775-3782.
  61. Wu, K.; Feskanich, D.; Fuchs, C.S.; Chan, A.T.; Willett, W.C.; Hollis, B.W.; Pollak, M.N.; Giovannucci, E. Interactions between plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and C- peptide with risk of colorectal cancer. PLoS ONE 2011, 6, e28520.
  62. Hong, S.N.; Kim, J.H.; Choe, W.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Seol, D.C.; Moon, H.W.; Hur, M.; Yun, Y.M.; Sung, I.K.; Park,
  63. S.; et al. Circulating vitamin D and colorectal adenoma in asymptomatic average-risk individuals who underwent first screening colonoscopy: A case-control study. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2012, 57, 753-763.
  64. Giovannucci, E. Vitamin D and cancer incidence in the Harvard cohorts. Ann. Epidemiol. 2009, 19, 84-88.
  65. Kuhn, T.; Kaaks, R.; Teucher, B.; Hirche, F.; Dierkes, J.; Weikert, C.; Katzke, V.; Boeing, H.; Stangl, G.I.; Buijsse, B. Dietary, lifestyle, and genetic determinants of vitamin D status: A cross-sectional analysis from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study. Eur. J. Nutr. 2013, 53, 731-741.
  66. Pibiri, F.; Kittles, R.; Sandler, R.S.; Keku, T.O.; Kupfer, S.S.; Xicola, R.M.; Llor, X.; Ellis, N.A. Genetic variation in vitamin D-related genes and risk of colorectal cancer in African Americans. Cancer Causes Control 2014, 25, 561-570.
  67. Berger, M.D.; Lenz, H.J. The safety of monoclonal antibodies for treatment of colorectal cancer. Expert Opin. Drug. Saf. 2016, 15, 799-808.
  68. Yin, L.; Grandi, N.; Raum, E.; Haug, U.; Arndt, V.; Brenner, H. Meta-analysis: Serum vitamin D and colorectal adenoma risk. Prev. Med. 2011, 53, 10-16.
  69. Gandini, S.; Boniol, M.; Haukka, J.; Byrnes, G.; Cox, B.; Sneyd, M.J.; Mullie, P.; Autier, P. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Int. J. Cancer 2011, 128, 141 1424.
  70. Wei, M.Y.; Garland, C.F.; Gorham, E.D.; Mohr, S.B.; Giovannucci, E. Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal adenoma: A meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2008, 17, 2958-2969.
  71. Hibler, E.A.; Sardo Molmenti, C.L.; Lance, P.; Jurutka, P.W.; Jacobs, E.T. Associations between circulating
  72. 25(OH)2D concentration and odds of metachronous colorectal adenoma. Cancer Causes Control 2014, 25, 809-817.
  73. Hibler, E.A.; Klimentidis, Y.C.; Jurutka, P.W.; Kohler, L.N.; Lance, P.; Roe, D.J.; Thompson, P.A.; Jacobs, E.T. CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 polymorphisms, concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, and odds of colorectal adenoma recurrence. Nutr. Cancer 2015, 67, 1131-1141.
  74. Shui, I.M.; Mucci, L.A.; Kraft, P.; Tamimi, R.M.; Lindstrom, S.; Penney, K.L.; Nimptsch, K.; Hollis, B.W.; Dupre, N.; Platz, E.A.; et al. Vitamin D-related genetic variation, plasma vitamin D, and risk of lethal prostate cancer: A prospective nested case-control study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2012, 104, 690-699.
  75. Bikle, D.D.; Patzek, S.; Wang, Y. Physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of extra renal CYP27B1: Case report and review. Bone Rep. 2018, 8, 255-267.
  76. Holt, S.K.; Kwon, E.M.; Koopmeiners, J.S.; Lin, D.W.; Feng, Z.; Ostrander, E.A.; Peters, U.; Stanford, J.L. Vitamin D pathway gene variants and prostate cancer prognosis. Prostate 2010, 70, 1448-1460.
  77. Albanes, D.; Mondul, A.M.; Yu, K.; Parisi, D.; Horst, R.L.; Virtamo, J.; Weinstein, S.J. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and prostate cancer risk in a large nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2011, 20, 1850-1860.
  78. Chen, T.C.; Wang, L.; Whitlatch, L.W.; Flanagan, J.N.; Holick, M.F. Prostatic 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha- hydroxylase and its implication in prostate cancer. J. Cell Biochem. 2003, 88, 315-322.
  79. Tretli, S.; Hernes, E.; Berg, J.P.; Hestvik, U.E.; Robsahm, T.E. Association between serum 25(OH)D and death from prostate cancer. Br. J. Cancer 2009, 100, 450-454.
  80. Fang, F.; Kasperzyk, J.L.; Shui, I.; Hendrickson, W.; Hollis, B.W.; Fall, K.; Ma, J.; Gaziano, J.M.; Stampfer, M.J.; Mucci, L.A.; et al. Prediagnostic plasma vitamin D metabolites and mortality among patients with prostate cancer. PLoS ONE 2011, 6, e18625.
  81. Ahn, J.; Albanes, D.; Berndt, S.I.; Peters, U.; Chatterjee, N.; Freedman, N.D.; Abnet, C.C.; Huang, W.Y.; Kibel, A.S.; Crawford, E.D.; et al. Vitamin D-related genes, serum vitamin D concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 2009, 30, 769-776.
  82. Johnson, M.A.; Davey, A.; Park, S.; Hausman, D.B.; Poon, L.W.; Georgia Centenarian Study. Age race and season predict vitamin D status in African American and white octogenarians and centenarians. J. Nutr. Health Aging 2008, 12, 690-695.
  83. Roff, A.; Wilson, R.T. A novel SNP in a vitamin D response element of the CYP24A1 promoter reduces protein binding, transactivation, and gene expression. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2008, 112, 47-54.
  84. Bonilla, C.; Hooker, S.; Mason, T.; Bock, C.H.; Kittles, R.A. Prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified on chromosome 12 in African Americans. PLoS ONE 2011, 6, e16044.
  85. Reddy, S.; Shapiro, M.; Morton, R.; Brawley, O.W. Prostate cancer in black and white Americans. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2003, 22, 83-86.
  86. Whitman, E.J.; Pomerantz, M.; Chen, Y.; Chamberlin, M.M.; Furusato, B.; Gao, C.; Ali, A.; Ravindranath, L.; Dobi, A.; Sesterhenn, I.A.; et al. Prostate cancer risk allele specific for African descent associates with pathologic stage at prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2010, 19, 1-8.
  87. Beuten, J.; Gelfond, J.A.; Franke, J.L.; Weldon, K.S.; Crandall, A.C.; Johnson-Pais, T.L.; Thompson, I.M.; Leach, R.J. Single and multigenic analysis of the association between variants in 12 steroid hormone metabolism genes and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2009, 18, 1869-1880.
  88. Shui, I.M.; Mondul, A.M.; Lindstrom, S.; Tsilidis, K.K.; Travis, R.C.; Gerke, T.; Albanes, D.; Mucci, L.A.; Giovannucci, E.; Kraft, P.; et al. Circulating vitamin D, vitamin D-related genetic variation, and risk of fatal prostate cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cancer 2015, 121, 1949-1956.
  89. Wagner, D.; Trudel, D.; Van der Kwast, T.; Nonn, L.; Giangreco, A.A.; Li, D.; Dias, A.; Cardoza, M.; Laszlo, S.; Hersey, K.; et al. Randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 doses on prostatic vitamin D metabolite levels and ki67 labeling in prostate cancer patients. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2013, 98, 1498-1507.
  90. O'Brien, K.M.; Sandler, D.P.; Kinyamu, H.K.; Taylor, J.A.; Weinberg, C.R. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes may modify vitamin D-breast cancer associations. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2017, 26, 1761-1771.
  91. Yang, L.; Veier0d, M.B.; Lof, M.; Sandin, S.; Adami, H.O.; Weiderpass, E. Prospective study of UV exposure and cancer incidence among Swedish women. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2011, 20, 1358-1367.
  92. Anderson, L.N.; Cotterchio, M.; Kirsh, V.A.; Knight, J.A. Ultraviolet sunlight exposure during adolescence and adulthood and breast cancer risk: A population-based case-control study among Ontario women. Am.
  93. J. Epidemiol. 2011, 174, 293-304.
  94. Rossi, M.; McLaughlin, J.K.; Lagiou, P.; Bosetti, C.; Talamini, R.; Lipworth, L.; Giacosa, A.; Montella, M.; Franceschi, S.; Negri, E.; et al. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk: A case-control study in Italy. Ann. Oncol. 2009, 20, 374-378.
  95. McCullough, M.L.; Rodriguez, C.; Diver, W.R.; Feigelson, H.S.; Stevens, V.L.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2005, 14, 2898-2904.
  96. O'Brien, K.M.; Sandler, D.P.; Taylor, J.A.; Weinberg, C.R. Serum vitamin D and risk of breast cancer within five years. Environ. Health Perspect. 2017, 125, 077004.
  97. Reimers, L.L.; Crew, K.D.; Bradshaw, P.T.; Santella, R.M.; Steck, S.E.; Sirosh, I.; Terry, M.B.; Hershman, D.L.; Shane, E.; Cremers, S.; et al. Vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms, plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control 2015, 26, 187-203.
  98. McCullough, M.L.; Bostick, R.M.; Mayo, T.L. Vitamin D gene pathway polymorphisms and risk of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 2009, 29,111-132.
  99. Clendenen, T.V.; Ge, W.; Koenig, K.L.; Axelsson, T.; Liu, M.; Afanasyeva, Y.; Andersson, A.; Arslan, A.A.; Chen, Y.; Hallmans, G.; et al. Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism and signaling genes and risk of breast cancer: A nested case-control study; PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0140478.
  100. Clemens, T.L.; Adams, J.S.; Henderson, S.L.; Holick, M.F. Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of skin to synthesise vitamin D3. Lancet 1982, 1, 74-76.
  101. Amend, K.; Hicks, D.; Ambrosone, C.B. Breast cancer in African-American women: Differences in tumor biology from European-American women. Cancer Res. 2006, 66, 8327-8330.
  102. Ooi, L.L.; Zhou, H.; Kalak, R.; Zheng, Y.; Conigrave, A.D.; Seibel, M.J.; Dunstan, C.R. Vitamin D deficiency promotes human breast cancer growth in a murine model of bone metastasis. Cancer Res. 2010, 70, 18351844.
  103. Yao, S.; Zirpoli, G.; Bovbjerg, D.H.; Jandorf, L.; Hong, C.C.; Zhao, H.; Sucheston, L.E.; Tang, L.; Roberts, M.; Ciupak, G.; et al. Variants in the vitamin D pathway, serum levels of vitamin D, and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer among African-American women: A case-control study. Breast Cancer Res. 2012, 14, R58.
  104. Kudachadkar, R.; O'Regan, R.M. Aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal patients with early stage breast Cancer. CA Cancer J. Clin. 2005, 55, 145-163.
  105. Henry, N.L.; Azzouz, F.; Desta, Z.; Li, L.; Nguyen, A.T.; Lemler, S.; Hayden, J.; Tarpinian, K.; Yakim, E.; Flockhart, D.A.; et al. Predictors of aromatase inhibitor discontinuation as a result of treatment-emergent symptoms in early-stage breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 2012, 30, 936-942.
  106. Crew, K.D.; Greenlee, H.; Capodice, J.; Raptis, G.; Brafman, L.; Fuentes, D.; Sierra, A.; Hershman, D.L. Prevalence of joint symptoms in postmenopausal women taking aromatase inhibitors for early-stage breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 2007, 25, 3877-3883.
  107. Prieto-Alhambra, D.; Javaid, M.; Servitja, S.; Arden, N.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Diez-Perez, A.; Albanell, J.; Tusquets, I.; Nogues, X. Vitamin D threshold to prevent aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgia: A prospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2010, 125, 869-878.
  108. Garcia-Giralt, N.; Rodriguez-Sanz, M.; Prieto-Alhambra, D.; Servitja, S.; Torres-Del Pliego, E.; Balcells, S.; Albanell, J.; Grinberg, D.; Diez-Perez, A.; Tusquets, I.; et al. Genetic determinants of aromatase inhibitor- related arthralgia: The B-ABLE cohort study. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2013, 140, 385-395.
  109. Jemal, A.; Bray, F.; Center, M.M.; Ferlay, J.; Ward, E.; Forman, D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J. Clin. 61, 69-90.
  110. de Groot, P.; Munden, R.F. Lung cancer epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention. Radiol. Clin. N. Am. 50, 863-876.
  111. LaPar, D.J.; Nagji, A.S.; Bhamidipati, C.M.; Kozower, B.D.; Lau, C.L.; Ailawadi, G.; Jones, D.R. Seasonal variation influences outcomes following lung cancer resections. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 2011, 40, 83-90.
  112. Liu, Y.; Chen, W.; Hu, Z.B.; Xu, L.; Shu, Y.Q.; Pan, S.Y.; Dai, J.C.; Jin, G.F.; Ma, H.X.; Shen, H.B. Plasma vitamin D levels and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with survival of non-small cell lung cancer. Chin. J. Cancer Res. 2011, 23, 33-37.
  113. Kilkkinen, A.; Knekt, P.; Heliovaara, M.; Rissanen, H.; Marniemi, J.; Hakulinen, T.; Aromaa, A. Vitamin D status and the risk of lung cancer: A cohort study in Finland. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2008, 17, 32743278.
  114. Zhou, W.; Heist, R.S.; Liu, G.; Asomaning, K.; Neuberg, D.S.; Hollis, B.W.; Wain, J.C.; Lynch, T.J.; Giovannucci, E.; Su, L.; et al. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels predict survival in early-stage nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients. J. Clin. Oncol. 2007, 25, 479-485.
  115. Zhou, W.; Suk, R.; Liu, G.; Park, S.; Neuberg, D.S.; Wain, J.C.; Lynch, T.J.; Giovannucci, E.; Christiani, D.C. Vitamin D is associated with improved survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2005, 14, 2303-2309.
  116. Yokomura, K.; Suda, T.; Sasaki, S.; Inui, N.; Chida, K.; Nakamura, H. Increased expression of the 25- hydroxyvitamin D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase gene in alveolar macrophages of patients with lung cancer. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2003, 88, 5704-5709.
  117. Mio, T.; Romberger, D.J.; Thompson, A.B.; Robbins, R.A.; Heires, A.; Rennard, S.I. Cigarette smoke induces interleukin-8 release from human bronchial epithelial cells. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med. 1997, 155, 17701776.
  118. Wu, X.; Cheng, J.; Yang, K. (2016) Vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms, plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, cigarette smoke and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1597.
  119. Kong, J.; Xu, F.; Qu, J.; Wang, Y.; Gao, M.; Yu, H.; Qian, B. Genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D pathway in relation to lung cancer risk and survival. Oncotarget 2015, 6, 2573-2582.
  120. Gronostajski, R.M. Roles of the NFI/CTF gene family intranscription and development. Gene 2000, 249, 3145.
  121. Gronostajski, R.M.; Adhya, S.; Nagata, K.; Guggenheimer, R.A.; Hurwitz, J. Site-specific DNA binding of nuclear factor I: Analyses of cellular binding sites. Mol. Cell Biol. 1985, 5, 964-971.
  122. Anderson, L.N.; Cotterchio, M.; Knight, J.A.; Borgida, A.; Gallinger, S.; Cleary, S.P. Genetic variants in vitamin d pathway genes and risk of pancreas cancer; results from a population based case-control study in Ontario, Canada. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, e66768.
  123. Arem, H.; Yu, K.; Xiong, X.; Moy, K.; Freedman, N.D.; Mayne, S.T.; Albanes, D.; Arslan, A.A.; Austin, M.; Bamlet, W.R.; et al. Vitamin D metabolic pathway genes and pancreatic cancer risk. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0117574.
  124. Grant, W.B. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer 2002, 94, 1867-1875.
  125. Grant, W.B. An ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in Spain with respect to indices of solar UVB irradiance and smoking. Int. J. Cancer 2007, 120, 1123-1128.
  126. Kinoshita, S.; Wagatsuma, Y.; Okada, M. Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan. Int. J. Health Geogr. 2007, 6, 34.
  127. Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.Z.; Jacobs, E.J.; Arslan, A.A.; Qi, D.; Patel, A.V.; Helzlsouer, K.J.; Weinstein, S.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Purdue, M.P.; Shu, X.O.; et al. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2010, 172, 81-93.
  128. Wolpin, B.M.; Ng, K.; Bao, Y.; Kraft, P.; Stampfer, M.J.; Michaud, D.S.; Ma, J.; Buring, J.E.; Sesso, H.D.; Lee,
  129. M.; et al. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 2011, 21,82-91.
  130. Clinckspoor, I.; Hauben, E.; Verlinden, L.; Van den Bruel, A.; Vanwalleghem, L.; Vander Poorten, V.; Delaere, P.; Mathieu, C.; Verstuyf, A.; Decallonne, B. Altered expression of key players in vitamin D metabolism and signaling in malignant and benign thyroid tumors. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 2012, 60, 502511.
  131. Khadzkou, K.; Buchwald, P.; Westin, G.; Dralle, H.; Akerstrom, G.; Hellman, P. 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptor expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 2006, 54, 355-361.
  132. Sharma, V.; Fretwell, D.; Crees, Z.; Kerege, A.; Klopper, J.P. Thyroid cancer resistance to vitamin D receptor activation is associated with 24-hydroxylase levels but not the ff FokI polymorphism. Thyroid 2010, 20, 1103-1111.
  133. Bouillon, R.; Eelen, G.; Verlinden, L.; Mathieu, C.; Carmeliet, G.; Verstuyf, A. Vitamin D and cancer. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2006, 102, 156-162.
  134. Penna-Martinez, M.; Ramos-Lopez, E.; Stern, J.; Hinsch, N.; Hansmann, M.L.; Selkinski, I.; Grunwald, F.; Vorlander, C.; Wahl, R.A.; Bechstein, W.O.; et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 2009, 19, 623-628.
  135. Alter, M.J. The epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis C. Clin. Liver Dis. 1997, 1, 559-568.
  136. Falleti, E.; Bitetto, D.; Fabris, C.; Cussigh, A.; Fontanini, E.; Fornasiere, E.; Fumolo, E.; Bignulin, S.; Cmet, S.; Minisini, R.; et al. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in alcoholic cirrhosis. World J. Gastroenterol. 2010, 16, 3016-3024.
  137. Cusato, J.; Boglione, L.; De Nicolo, A.; Favata, F.; Ariaudo, A.; Mornese Pinna, S.; Guido, F.; Avataneo, V.; Cantu, M.; Carcieri, C.; et al. Vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C-affected patients treated with new drugs. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 2018, 81, 615620.
  138. Chang, E.T.; Canchola, A.J.; Cockburn, M.; Lu, Y.; Wang, S.S.; Bernstein, L.; Clarke, C.A.; Horn-Ross, P.L. Adulthood residential ultraviolet radiation, sun sensitivity, dietary vitamin D, and risk of lymphoid malignancies in the California Teachers Study. Blood 2011, 118, 1591-1599.
  139. Kelly, J.L.; Drake, M.T.; Fredericksen, Z.S.; Asmann, Y.W.; Liebow, M.; Shanafelt, T.D.; Feldman, A.L.; Ansell, S.M.; Macon, W.R.; Herr, M.M.; et al. Early life sun exposure, vitamin D-related gene variants, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Causes Control 2012, 23, 1017-1029.
  140. Purdue, M.P.; Freedman, D.M.; Gapstur, S.M.; Helzlsouer, K.J.; Laden, F.; Lim, U.; Maskarinec, G.; Rothman, N.; Shu, X.O.; Stevens, V.L.; et al. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma: Cohort consortium vitamin D pooling project of rarer cancers. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2010, 172, 5869.
  141. Fichna, M.; Zurawek, M.; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, D.; Gryczynska, M.; Fichna, P.; Sowinski, J.; Nowak, J. Association of the CYP27B1C(-1260)A polymorphism with autoimmune Addison's disease. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 2010, 118, 54 549.
  142. Lange, C.M.; Bojunga, J.; Ramos-Lopez, E.; von Wagner, M.; Hassler, A.; Vermehren, J.; Herrmann, E.; Badenhoop, K.; Zeuzem, S.; Sarrazin, C. Vitamin D deficiency and a CYP27B1-1260 promoter polymorphism are associated with chronic hepatitis C and poor response to interferon-alfa based therapy. Hepatol. 2011, 54, 887-893.
  143. Bailey, R.; Cooper, J.D.; Zeitels, L.; Smyth, D.J.; Yang, J.H.; Walker, N.M.; Hypponen, E.; Dunger, D.B.; Ramos-Lopez, E.; Badenhoop, K.; et al. Association of the vitamin D metabolism gene CYP27B1 with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2007, 56, 2616-2621.
  144. Wilke, R.A.; Simpson, R.U.; Mukesh, B.N.; Bhupathi, S.V.; Dart, R.A.; Ghebranious, N.R.; McCarty, C.A. Genetic variation in CYP27B1 is associated with congestive heart failure in patients with hypertension. Pharmacogenomics 2009, 10, 1789-1797.
  145. Goldberg, P. Multiple sclerosis: Vitamin D and calcium as environmental determinants of prevalence. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 1974, 6, 121-129.
  146. Beretich, B.D.; Beretich, T.M. Explaining multiple sclerosis prevalence by ultraviolet exposure: A geospatial analysis. Mult. Scler. 2009, 15, 891-898.
  147. Holick, M.F.; Cook, S.; Suarez, G.; Rametta, M. Vitamin D deficiency and possible role in multiple sclerosis. Eur. Neurol. Rev. 2015, 10, 131-138.
  148. Wang, Y.; Marling, S.J.; Zhu, J.G.; Severson, K.S.; DeLuca, H.F. Development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice requires vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012, 109, 8501-8504.
  149. Chiuso-Minicucci, F.; Ishikawa, L.L.; Mimura, L.A.; Fraga-Silva, T.F.; Franga, T.G.; Zorzella-Pezavento, S.F.; Marques, C.; Ikoma, M.R.; Sartori, A. Treatment with vitamin D/MOG association suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0125836.
  150. Agnello, L.; Scazzone, C.; Lo Sasso, B.; Bellia, C.; Bivona, G.; Realmuto, S.; Brighina, F.; Schillaci, R.; Ragonese, P.; Salemi, G.; et al. VDBP, CYP27B1, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D gene polymorphism analyses in a group of Sicilian multiple sclerosis patients. Biochem. Genet. 2017, 55, 183-192.
  151. Ramagopalan, S.V.; Dyment, D.A.; Cader, M.Z.; Morrison, K.M.; Disanto, G.; Morahan, J.M.; Berlanga- Taylor, A.J.; Handel, A.; De Luca, G.C.; Sadovnick, A.D.; et al. Rare variants in the CYP27B1 gene are associated with multiple sclerosis. Ann. Neuro. 2011, 70, 881-886.
  152. Alcina, A.; Fedetz, M.; Fernandez, O.; Saiz, A.; Izquierdo, G.; Lucas, M.; Leyva, L.; Garcia-Leon, J.A.; del Mar Abad-Grau, M.; Alloza, I.; et al. Identification of a functional variant in the KIF5A-CYP27B1-METTL1- FAM119B locus associated with multiple sclerosis. J. Med. Genet. 2013, 50, 25-33.
  153. Jiang, T.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Yang, J.; Ma, D.; Guan, Y.; Zhao, D.; Bao, Y.; Wang, Y.; et al. The association between genetic polymorphism rs703842 in CYP27B1 and multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016, 95, e3612.
  154. Miller, W.L. Genetic disorders of vitamin D biosynthesis and degradation. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2017, 165, 101-108.
  155. Zalewski, A.; Ma, N.S.; Legeza, B.; Renthal, N.; Fluck, C.E.; Pandey, A.V. Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1 caused by mutations in CYP27B1 affecting protein interactions with adrenodoxin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2016, 101, 3409-3418.
  156. Demir, K.; Kattan, W.E.; Zou, M.; Durmaz, E.; BinEssa, H.; Nalbantoglu, O.; Al-Rijjal, R.A.; Meyer, B.; Ozkan, B.; Shi, Y. Novel CYP27B1 gene mutations in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0131376.
  157. Georgakopoulou, E.A.; Achtari, M.D.; Achtaris, M.; Foukas, P.G.; Kotsinas, A. Oral lichen planus as a preneoplastic inflammatory model. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2012, 2012, 759626.
  158. Carrozzo, M.; Thorpe, R. Oral lichen planus: A review. Minerva Stomatol. 2009, 58, 519-537.
  159. Kujundzic, B.; Zeljic, K.; Supic, G.; Magic, M.; Stanimirovic, D.; Ilic, V.; Jovanovic, B.; Magic, Z. Association of vdr, cyp27b1, cyp24a1 and mthfr gene polymorphisms with oral lichen planus risk. Clin. Oral Investig. 2016, 20, 781-789.
  160. Zeljic, K.; Supic, G.; Stamenkovic Radak, M.; Jovic, N.; Kozomara, R.; Magic, Z. Vitamin D receptor, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 genes polymorphisms association with oral cancer risk and survival. J. Oral. Pathol. Med. 2012, 41, 779-787.
  161. DeLuca, H.F.; Zierold, C. Mechanisms and functions of vitamin D. Nutr. Rev. 1998, 56, S S10

Created by admin. Last Modification: Tuesday February 15, 2022 18:14:23 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 12)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
13659 CYP27B1 table.jpg admin 22 Mar, 2020 390.40 Kb 900
13658 CYP27B1 chart.jpg admin 22 Mar, 2020 86.61 Kb 1121
13657 Calcitriol action.jpg admin 22 Mar, 2020 71.18 Kb 1089
13656 CYP27B1 March 2020.pdf admin 22 Mar, 2020 553.80 Kb 556