Vitamin D supplementation for improvement of chronic low-grade inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Nutr Rev. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux077. [Epub ahead of print]
Mousa A1, Naderpoor N1, Teede H1, Scragg R2, de Courten B1.
- 1 Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
- 2 School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
- Vitamin D reduces sepsis
- Inflammatory diseases: review of vitamin D, with many tables – May 2014
- Inflammation reduced by a single dose of Vitamin D (200,000 IU) – RCT Jan 2016
- Diabetes treated if given enough vitamin D (example: 50,000 IU weekly) – review of RCT - Jan 2017
- Diabetic inflammation reduced by Calcium and 50,000 IU of vitamin D in 8 weeks – RCT 2014
- Omega-3 improves gut bacteria, reduces inflammation and depression – Dec 2017
- HbA1c levels (Diabetes) reduced by monthly 50,000 IU of vitamin D – Dec 2017
The above study was published after the study on this page stopped looking for new data
Overview Diabetes and vitamin D contains the following summary
- Diabetes is 5X more frequent far from the equator
- Children getting 2,000 IU of vitamin D are 8X less likely to get Type 1 diabetes
- Obese people get less sun / Vitamin D - and also vitamin D gets lost in fat
- Sedentary people get less sun / Vitamin D
- Worldwide Diabetes increase has been concurrent with vitamin D decrease and air conditioning
- Elderly get 4X less vitamin D from the same amount of sun
Elderly also spend less time outdoors and have more clothes on
- All items in category Diabetes and Vitamin D
447 items: both Type 1 and Type 2
Vitamin D appears to both prevent and treat diabetes
- Appears that >2,000 IU will Prevent
- Appears that >4,000 IU will Treat , but not cure
- Appears that Calcium and Magnesium are needed for both Prevention and Treatment
- which are just some of the vitamin D cofactors
Number of articles in both categories of Diabetes and:
- Dark Skin
22 ; Intervention 48 ; Meta-analysis 28 ; Obesity 26 ; Pregnancy 39 ; T1 (child) 33 ; Omega-3 10 ; Vitamin D Receptor 18 ; Genetics 9 ; Magnesium 18 Click here to see details
Diabetes category starts with the following
447 items In Diabetes category Autoimmune category listing has 162 items along with related searches
- As with virtually all meta-analyses, the amount of vitamin D is not considered.
- Note – The study showing the most benefit happens to have used a lot of vitamin D (50,000 IU every 2 weeks: Razzaghi doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.06.017)
Vitamin D has been proposed to have anti-inflammatory properties; however, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation in type 2 diabetes has not been established.
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify relevant gaps in knowledge.
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and EBM Reviews were searched systematically from inception to January 25, 2017.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of vitamin D supplementation (any form, route, and duration, and with any cosupplementation) compared with placebo or usual care on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes were selected.
Study and sample characteristics and aggregate outcome data were extracted, risk of bias was determined, and quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.
Twenty-eight RCTs were included, 20 of which had data available for pooling. In meta-analyses of 20 RCTs (n = 1270 participants), vitamin D-supplemented groups had lower levels of C-reactive protein (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.23; 95%CI, -0.37 to -0.09; P = 0.002) and tumor necrosis factor α (SMD -0.49; 95%CI, -0.84 to -0.15; P = 0.005), a lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SMD -0.47; 95%CI, -0.89 to -0.05; P = 0.03), and higher levels of leptin (SMD 0.42; 95%CI, 0.04-0.81; P = 0.03) compared with control groups. No differences were observed for adiponectin, interleukin 6, or E-selectin (all P > 0.05). In meta-regression and subgroup analyses, age, sex, body mass index, duration of diabetes, baseline vitamin D status, and dose and duration of supplementation did not alter the results.
This meta-analysis provides level 1 evidence that vitamin D supplementation may reduce chronic low-grade inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016047755. Available at: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=47755 (9/15/2016).
PMID: 29490085 DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nux077