- "low birth weight" OR LBW OR VLBW OR ELBW 967 items as of Nov 2018
- COVID-19 resulted in 3.7X decrease in Irish Very Low Weight Births (Vitamin D) - June 2020
- Vitamin D intervention reduces preterm births and low birth weight by 60 percent – Cochrane Reviews – Nov 2017
- 7X more likely to have low birth weight babies when mother very low on vitamin D – March 2010
- Low birth weight 3X more likely if mother had less than 25 nanograms of vitamin D – May 2012
- The vitamin D level was the difference, not the skin color
- Small for gestational age birth was 6.5X more likely if mother was vitamin D deficient – March 2015 Chinese
- Preterm birth rate reduced by vitamin D – 78 percent if non-white, 39 percent if white – July 2017
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D has the following
- Ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby - take Vitamin D before conception has the following
Dark Skin Pregnancies
- Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D
- Dark skin pregnancies 2.6 times more likely to have low vitamin D – March 2017
- Preterm birth more likely if dark skinned and low vitamin D (not white-skinned) – April 2017
- Children in India – 1 in 7 extremely low Vitamin D, 1 in 10 prediabetic – Sept 2019
- Pregnant while black increases chance of death – mothers 3X, infants 2X (low Vitamin D) – Feb 2019
- Black infant recurrent wheezing rate dropped from 42 percent to 31 percent with just 400 IU of vitamin D – RCT Dec 2018
- All preteen aged girls in India taking 2,000 IU of vitamin D got levels above 20 ng – RCT Nov 2018
- Low birth weight far more likely if African-American (low vitamin D) – 1997, Aug 2018
- Indoor pollution is a problem with obese black asthmatic children – May 2018
- Crohn's disease in black children is worse in 6 ways – Dec 2015
- Black infants far less likely to be breast-fed (wonder – culture or low Vitamin D) – Aug 2017
- Vitamin D needed to get children to just 20 ng in winter 800 IU white skin, 1100 IU dark (Sweden) – RCT June 2017
- Many US kids have less than 40 ng of Vitamin D – 99 out of 100 blacks, 91 out of 100 whites – Jan 2017
- Small for gestational age with low vitamin D – 3.6X higher for blacks than whites – April 2016
- Type I diabetes in dark skin children associated with low vitamin D if far from equator – Jan 2015
- Dark skinned children were vitamin D deficient in Italy (not infants) – Nov 2014
- Breastfed Infants in Iowa got very little vitamin D, especially if winter or dark skin – July 2013
- Black infants had far lower vitamin D levels which did not vary with season – Jan 2013
- 83 percent of children had less than 20 ng of vitamin D – 15 ng avg for hispanic – Aug 2012
- Rickets in 30 percent of infants in India who had low vitamin D – March 2011
- Large increase in dark skin children with vitamin D deficiency in Glasgow – June 2010
- Dark Skinned babies probably need vitamin D to prevent nutritional rickets - 2001
DIFFERING BIRTH WEIGHT AMONG INFANTS OF U.S.-BORN BLACKS, AFRICAN-BORN BLACKS, AND U.S.-BORN WHITES - 1997
The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 337 Number 17 • 1209
Richard J. David, M.D., and James W. Collins, Jr., M.D., M.P.H.
Background In the United States, the birth weights of infants of black women are lower than those of infants of white women. The extent to which the lower birth weights among blacks are related to social or genetic factors is unclear.
Methods We used vital records for 1980 through 1995 from Illinois to determine the distribution of birth weights among infants born to three groups of women — U.S.-born blacks, African-born blacks, and U.S.-born whites.
Results The mean birth weight of 44,046 infants of U.S.-born white women was 3446 g, that of 3135 infants of African-born black women was 3333 g, and that of 43,322 infants of U.S.-born black women was 3089 g. The incidence of low birth weight (weight less than 2500 g) was 13.2 percent among infants of U.S.-born black women and 7.1 percent among infants of African-born black women, as compared with 4.3 percent among infants of U.S.- born white women (relative risks, 3.1 and 1.6, respectively). Among the women at lowest risk (those 20 to 39 years old, with 12 years of education for themselves and their spouses, early prenatal care, gravida 2 or 3, and no previous fetal loss), the rate of low birth weight in infants of African-born black women (3.6 percent) was closer to the rate in infants of U.S.- born white women (2.4 percent), and the rate in infants of U.S.-born black women remained high (7.5 percent).
Conclusions The birth-weight patterns of infants of African-born black women and U.S.-born white women are more closely related to one another than to the birth weights of infants of U.S.-born black women.
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Vitamin D and associated perinatal-neonatal outcomes among extremely low-birth-weight infants - 2018
Journal of Perinatology https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-018-0203-y
Birju A. Shah 1,2 Birju-Shah at ouhsc.edu. James F. Padbury • Michael P. Anderson • Michael F. Holick • Edgardo Szyld, Catherine M. Gordon
Summary: Vitamin D levels of women with Extremely low birth weight infants
|White, non-Hispanic||15 %||73%||63%|
Objective To evaluate vitamin D inadequacy among extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW, <1000 g) infants and the association between circulating vitamin D concentrations and perinatal-neonatal outcomes.
Study design Prospective cohort study of ELBW infants in the neonatal ICU. Blood was collected within the first 3 days after birth after obtaining informed consent. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy and classified as vitamin D deficient, insufficient, or adequate (< 20, 20-30, or > 30ng/mL, respectively). Associations between 25(OH)D and perinatal-neonatal outcomes were determined by multivariable regression, adjusted for covariates that differ in the bivariate analysis.
Results Of the 60 ELBW infants enrolled, 13 (22%) were vitamin D deficient, 15 (25%) were insufficient, and 32 (53%) were adequate. 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with fetal growth restriction and prolonged rupture of the membranes.
Conclusions Vitamin D inadequacy was frequent among ELBW infants. Circulating vitamin D concentrations were significantly associated with perinatal outcomes in this contemporary cohort.
- Hundreds of articles on poor health of black women.
- Not a single article contains the phrase “vitamin d”, even the following
- Low Birth Weight Babies And Black Women: What’s The Connection? July 2017