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Small for gestational age with low vitamin D – 3.6X higher for blacks than whites – April 2016

Racial disparities in cord blood vitamin D levels and its association with small-for-gestational-age infants

Journal of Perinatology advance online publication 21 April 2016; doi: 10.1038/jp.2016.64
T L Seto1, M E Tabangin2, G Langdon3, C Mangeot2, A Dawodu3, M Steinhoff3 and V Narendran1
1Division of Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
2Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
3Global Health Center, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Correspondence: Dr V Narendran, Division of Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, ML 7009, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. E-mail: vivek.narendran at cchmc.org

Vitamin D Levels at birth Blacks and Whites


Table 1


Figure 1 Vitamin D deficiency vs BMI and prenatal vitamins

Note: This study defines vitamin D deficiency as < 20 nanograms
Prenal Vitamins typically have 400 IU of vitamin D
400 IU does help somewhat if you do not have a high BMI


Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary

0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
The items in both categories Infant/Child and Dark Skin:

  Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Objective: To examine the relationship of race and maternal characteristics and their association with cord blood vitamin D levels and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status.

Study Design: Cord blood vitamin D levels were measured in 438 infants (276 black and 162 white). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between maternal characteristics, vitamin D status and SGA.

Results: Black race, Medicaid status, mean body mass index at delivery and lack of prenatal vitamin use were associated with vitamin D deficiency. Black infants had 3.6 greater adjusted odds (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4, 5.6) of vitamin D deficiency when compared with white infants. Black infants with vitamin D deficiency had 2.4 greater adjusted odds (95% CI: 1.0, 5.8) of SGA. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with SGA in white infants.

Conclusion: Identification of risk factors (black race, Medicaid status, obesity and lack of prenatal vitamin use) can lead to opportunities for targeted prenatal vitamin supplementation to reduce the risk of neonatal vitamin D deficiency and SGA status.

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
6579 SGA F2.jpg admin 21 Apr, 2016 18:38 41.02 Kb 862
6578 SGA T1.jpg admin 21 Apr, 2016 18:37 68.28 Kb 810
6577 SGA Blacks.pdf PDF 2016 admin 21 Apr, 2016 18:29 507.30 Kb 580