Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 14. pii: ajcn147108. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.147108. [Epub ahead of print]
Need more to achieve a healthy 30 or 40 ng level of vitamin D
- Many US kids have less than 40 ng of Vitamin D – 99 out of 100 blacks, 91 out of 100 whites – Jan 2017
- Third study found that Infants needed 1600 IU of vitamin D – JAMA RCT May 2013
Infant-Child category starts with
- No consensus on MINIMUM International Units (IU) for healthy infant of normal weight
- 400 IU Vitamin D is no longer enough
Was OK in the past century, but D levels have been dropping for a great many reasons.
FDA doubled the vitamin D level in milk in July 2016
- No consensus: range is 600 to 1600 IU – based on many randomized controlled trials
- Fewer infants were vitamin D deficient when they got 800 IU – RCT Feb 2014
- 1600 IU was the conclusion of three JAMA studies
1000 IU recommended in France and Finland – 2013 - appears to be a good level
A recommended level may be agreed upon around the world by 2020
- 5X less mite allergy after add vitamin D
- Child bone fractures with low vitamin D were 55X more likely to need surgery
- 75 % of SIDS had low vitamin D
- Children stayed in ICU 3.5 days longer if low vitamin D – Dec 2015
- 5 out of 6 children who died in pediatric critical care unit had low vitamin D – May 2014
Having a good level of vitamin D cuts in half the amount of:
- Asthma, Chronic illness, Doctor visits, Allergies, infection
Respiratory Tract Infection, Growing pains, Bed wetting
Need even more IUs of vitamin D to get a good level if;
- Have little vitamin D: premie, twin, mother did not get much sun access
- Get little vitamin D: dark skin, little access to sun
- Vitamin D is consumed faster than normal due to sickness
- Older (need at least 100 IU/kilogram, far more if obese)
- Not get any vitamin D from formula (breast fed) or (fortified) milk
Note – formula does not even provide 400 IU of vitamin D daily
Infants-Children need Vitamin D
- Sun is great – well known for 1,000’s of years.
US govt (1934) even said infants should be out in the sun
- One country recommended 2,000 IU daily for decades – with no known problems
- As with adults, infants and children can have loading doses and rarely need tests
- Daily dose appears to be best, but monthly seems OK
- Vitamin D is typically given to infants in the form of drops
big difference in taste between brands
can also use water-soluable form of vitamin D in milk, food, juice,
- Infants have evolved to get a big boost of vitamin D immediately after birth
Colostrum has 3X more vitamin D than breast milk - provided the mother has any vitamin D to spare
- 100 IU per kg of infant July 2011, Poland etc.
More than 100 IU/kg is probably better
Many infants reject vitamin D drops, even when put on nipple
I speculate that the rejection is due to one or more of: additives, taste, and oils.
Infants have a hard time digesting oils, 1999 1997 and palm oils W.A. Price 1 2 3
Coconut oil, such as in D-Drops, is digested by infants. 1, 2 3
Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D has NO additves, taste, oil
One capsule of 50,000 Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D could be stirred into monthly formula
this would result in ~1,600 IUs per day for infant, and higher dose with weight/age/formula consumption
522 items in the category Infant/Child See also
- breastfed 962 items as of Sept 2017
- "BIRTH DEFECTS" 172 items as of July 2016
- Stunting OR “low birth weight” OR LBW OR preemie OR preemies OR preterm 1940 items as of Oct 2018
- "SUDDEN INFANT DEATH" OR SIDS 177 items as of Nov 2018
- Overview of Rickets and Vitamin D
- Youth category listing has
140 items along with related searches
Öhlund I1, Lind T2, Hernell O2, Silfverdal SA2, Karlsland Åkeson P3.
1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; and inger.ohlund at umu.se.
2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; and.
3 Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Background: Dark skin and low exposure to sunlight increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in children.
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of vitamin D needed to ascertain that most children >4 y of age attain sufficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D; i.e., ≥50 nmol/L] during winter regardless of latitude and skin color.
Design: In a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized, food-based intervention study, 5- to 7-y-old children from northern (63°N) and southern (55°N) Sweden with fair (n = 108) and dark (n = 98) skin were included. Children, stratified by skin color by using Fitzpatrick's definition, were randomly assigned to receive milk-based vitamin D3 supplements that provided 2 (placebo), 10, or 25 μg/d during 3 winter months.
Results: Mean daily vitamin D intake increased from 6 to 17 μg and 26 μg in the intervention groups supplemented with 10 and 25 μg, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 90.2% (95% CI: 81.1%, 99.3%) of fair-skinned children randomly assigned to supplementation of 10 μg/d attained sufficient concentrations, whereas 25 μg/d was needed in dark-skinned children to reach sufficiency in 95.1% (95% CI: 88.5%, 100%). In children adherent to the study product, 97% (95% CI: 91.3%, 100%) and 87.9% (95% CI: 76.8%, 99%) of fair- and dark-skinned children, respectively, achieved sufficient concentrations if supplemented with 10 μg/d. By using 95% prediction intervals for 30 and 50 nmol S-25(OH)D/L, intakes of 6 and 20 μg/d are required in fair-skinned children, whereas 14 and 28 μg/d are required in children with dark skin.
Conclusion: Children with fair and dark skin require vitamin D intakes of 20 and 28 μg/d, respectively, to maintain S-25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L, whereas intakes of 6 and 14 μg/d, respectively, are required to maintain concentrations ≥30 nmol/L during winter. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01741324.
PMID: 28615261 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.147108
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