Vitamin D intake and serum vitamin D in ethnically diverse urban schoolchildren.
Public Health Nutr. 2012 Aug 3:1-7.
Au LE, Economos CD, Goodman E, Must A, Chomitz VR, Sacheck JM.
1 Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, 150 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
OBJECTIVE: Low serum vitamin D, which largely affects ethnic minorities, is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases. Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in intake, particularly in children, or if any differences are associated with differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The objective of the present study was to determine whether racial/ethnic differences in dietary vitamin D intake exist and whether they explain differences in 25(OH)D.
DESIGN: Vitamin D intakes (Block Kids 2004 FFQ) and 25(OH)D were measured. Race/ethnicity was parent-reported (white (37·9 %), Hispanic (32·4 %), black (8·3 %), Asian (10·3 %), multi-racial/other (11·0 %)). Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the associations among dietary vitamin D and race/ethnicity, as well as 25(OH)D, independent of BMI Z-score and other covariates.
SETTING: Elementary/middle schools in Somerville, MA, USA, during January-April 2010.
SUBJECTS: Schoolchildren (n 145) in 4th-8th grade.
RESULTS: Only 2·1 % met the 2011 RDA (15 ?g/d (600 IU/d)). Average dietary intake was 3.5 (sd 2.2) ?g/d (140 (sd 89·0) IU/d). No racial/ethnic differences in intake were evident.
Most (83·4 %) were 25(OH)D deficient (<20 ng/ml; 16·0 (sd 6·5) ng/ml). In ANOVA post hoc analyses, 25(OH)D levels were lower in Hispanics than whites (14·6 (sd 6·1) ng/ml v. 17·9 (sd 4·6) ng/ml; P < 0·01). Dietary vitamin D was associated with 25(OH)D overall (P < 0·05), but did not explain the racial/ethnic differences in 25(OH)D.
CONCLUSIONS: Most children in this north-east US sample did not meet dietary recommendations for vitamin D and were vitamin D deficient. Dietary vitamin D did not explain the difference in 25(OH)D between Hispanic and white children. Further research is needed to determine if changes in dietary vitamin D by race/ethnicity can impact 25(OH)D levels.
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See also VitaminDWiki
- All items in category Youth and vitamin D
- Overview Dark Skin and Vitamin D
- Vitamin D insufficiency in UK youths – 37X more likely if dark skin – July 2011
- 75 % of children in NE US had less than 20 ng of vitamin D in winter – Dec 2011 very similar to current study
- % of entire countries with less than 20 nanograms83 percent of children had less than 20 ng of vitamin D – 15 ng avg for hispanic – Aug 2012
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