ASSOCIATION OF SERUM VITAMIN D AND KEY CO-NUTRIENTS IN RELATION TO HYPERTENSION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY BASED ON NHANES DATA
Barainca, Pamela – PHD Dissertation, University of MD
|Low levels of||Hypertension Risk|
|Vitamin D, Calcium, Magnesium||1.75|
|Vitamin A, |
Vitamin D, Calcium, Magnesium
See also VitaminDWiki
- Hypertension 1.5X more likely if low level of Magnesium - Oct 2014
- Hypertension reduced by Omega-3, especially if previously untreated – meta-analysis July 2014
Omega-3 not mentioned in the dissertation
- Hypertension 30 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2013
- Hypertension associated with low Calcium levels– Oct 2011
- Hypertension and vitamin D Overview
section in Overview: Omega-3, Magnesium and Coenzyme Q10 may each be better than Vitamin D
Observational studies demonstrate strong associations between deficient serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and cardiovascular disease. To further examine the association between vitamin D and hypertension (HTN), data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess whether the association between vitamin D and HTN varies by sufficiency of key co-nutrients necessary for metabolic vitamin D reactions to occur.
Logistic regression results demonstrate independent effect modification by calcium, magnesium, and vitamin A on the association between vitamin D and HTN. Among non-pregnant adults with adequate renal function, those with low levels of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D levels had 1.75 times the odds of HTN compared to those with sufficient vitamin D levels (p = <0.0001). Additionally, participants with low levels of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, and vitamin D had 5.43 times the odds of HTN compared to those with vitamin D sufficiency (p = 0.0103).