J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011 Oct;13(10):716-21
Sabanayagam C, Shankar A.
Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506-9190, USA.
Serum calcium levels have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, it is not clear whether serum calcium levels are related to hypertension, a risk factor for CVD. The authors examined the association between serum calcium and hypertension in a representative sample of US adults. A cross-sectional study of 12,405 third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants 20?years and older was conducted. Serum total and ionized calcium levels were analyzed as quartiles. The main outcome of interest was hypertension (n=3437), defined as self-reported use of antihypertensive medication and/or systolic blood pressure ?140?mm?Hg or diastolic blood pressure ?90?mm?Hg.
Elevated serum total calcium levels were positively associated with hypertension, independent of potential confounders including
- C-reactive protein,
- estimated glomerular filtration rate,
- serum albumin,
- 25(OH)D, and
Compared with the lowest quartile of serum total calcium (referent category), the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension was 1.49 (1.15-1.93) for the highest quartile (P=.005). This association persisted in subgroup analyses stratified by sex, age, and race-ethnicity. In contrast, serum ionized calcium levels were not associated with hypertension. Higher serum total calcium levels are positively associated with hypertension in a representative sample of U.S. adults.
© 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Suspect that the data was “adjusted” to eliminate the vitamin D association with hypertension
- Overview Hypertension and Vitamin D
- All items in category Hypertension and vitamin D
- Does vitamin D deficiency cause hypertension? 2010 with PDF
- Systolic hypertension 4X more likely if low on vitamin D 14 years before – Nov 2010
- 11 ng less vitamin D increases hypertension probability by 14 percent – Nov 2010
- Hypertension more likely with less vitamin D - Dec 2010 all work at Kaiser Permanete
- Review of heart failure and vitamin D mechanisms – Jan 2011
- Vitamin D reduced blood pressure in random controlled trials – Nov 2010
- Hypothesis that lack of vitamin D increases blood pressure in blacks – July 2010
- Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease - Systematic review June 2010
- Hypertension and vitamin D review -2011.pdf if registered
- Hypertension 5 X more likely if low Vitamin D, A, Calcium and Magnesium – June 2016Hypertension associated with low Calcium levels– Oct 2011
3728 visitors, last modified 28 Jun, 2016,