Large Individual Differences in Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Response to Vitamin D Supplementation: Effects of Genetic Factors, Body Mass Index, and Baseline Concentration. Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Horm Metab Res. 2015 Feb 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Sollid ST1, Hutchinson MY1, Fuskevåg OM2, Joakimsen RM1, Jorde R1.
The main aim of the study was to determine the influence of genetic factors on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D supplementation. The main outcome measure was an increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D after vitamin D supplementation. The patients are part of a randomized controlled trial in individuals with prediabetes assigned to 20 000 IU of vitamin D3 per week or placebo for 12 months. A total of 484 subjects were included in the analyses and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DBP, DHCR7, CYP2R1, and CYP24A1 genes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from all 4 selected genes were significantly related to baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with differences between major and minor homozygote genotypes ranging from 4.4 to 19.2 nmol/l. In the subjects given vitamin D, those with genotypes with the highest baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration also had the highest 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration after 12 months, and the increase (delta) in 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly related to 3 of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. The increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was also higher in lean vs. obese subjects, and higher in those with low baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations.
When combining these 3 factors in a linear regression model, the predicted (and observed) difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D increase between high and low responders to the supplementation was approximately 60 nmol/l.
In conclusion, due to genetic, body mass, and baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D differences, there are huge individual variations in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D supplementation that could be of clinical importance.
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
- Overview Vitamin D Dose-Response
- Some people need more vitamin D to get the same response – perhaps due to genes – Nov 2014
- CYP2R1 gene probably responsible for low vitamin D response – RCT April 2014
- Response to 1000 IU of vitamin D varies by about 4 percent due to gene variants – RCT July 2014
- Reasons for low response to vitamin D includes many charts, such as:
- Response to Vitamin D varies with genes (3,000 IU, weight loss in this RCT) – March 2022
- High-fat diet reduces CYP2R1 gene needed to make semi-activated vitamin D (mice) – Aug 2021
- Hypothesis: Obesity reduces Vitamin D production by repressing CYP2R1 gene in liver and fat tissue – July 2020
- Increased risk of weight gain when gene restricts Vitamin D getting to tissues (CYP24A1 in this case) – Nov 2019
- Obesity associated with poor Vitamin D genes (VDR in this study) – Jan 2018
- Gut genes related to important disease changed in Obese with 2,000 IU for 12 weeks – May 2019
- Obesity cut semi-activation of Vitamin D in half (mice) – Jan 2019
- Obesity might be related to Vitamin D genes – July 2018
- Vitamin D restricted in getting to cells by genes, obesity, etc – Jan 2017
- Multiple Sclerosis and obesity share some gene problems (as well as low vitamin D) – June 2016
- Vitamin D may block the obesity gene (FTO) – Jan 2014
- Vitamin D roles in obesity: genetics and cell signaling – June 2013
- Obese have 50 percent less of two enzymes in fatty tissue to process vitamin D – May 2013
- No apparent genetic association between vitamin D and obesity – Feb 2013
- Genes indicate that Obesity causes vitamin D deficiency – Feb 2013