Enteric Coated Oral Delivery of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle for Modified Release Vitamin D3 Formulation
Journal of Nanomaterials Vol 2021, Article ID 9972475, 9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9972475
Ranga K. Dissanayake rangad at sjp.ac.lk 7 K. D. C. Perera,2 W. P. T. D. Perera ,2 W. P. S. L. Wijesinghe,2
and Janitha M. Unagolla3
- 1 Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka
- 2 Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology and Science Park, Mahenwatte, Pitipana, Homagama 10206, Sri Lanka 3Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43607, USA
Vitamin D3 (VD) and calcium phosphate play a vital role in bone homeostasis. Factors such as obesity or gastrointestinal problems can render the use of pure VD and calcium phosphate supplements ineffective. This study investigated the possibility of using VD-loaded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for the codelivery of VD and Ca3(PO4)2. Due to the high affinity of Ca3(PO4)2 for bone tissue, HA is an ideal delivery system to deliver VD to target tissue. Herein, HA nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded with VD using a vacuum evaporation method. The synthesized HA-VD nanoparticles were morphologically and chemically characterized by SEM, FTIR, and TGA. The system exhibited a two-stage release pattern, which includes a first-day burst release (35%) and sustained release for a further ten days. The cytocompatibility and cell penetrative ability of the nanoparticle system were assessed in vitro using preosteoblast cells: the system is nontoxic and well-tolerated. Finally, the VD-loaded HA nanoparticles were coated with a gastroresistant polymer, hypromellose phtalate-55 (HP-55) in order to protect the pH-sensitive HA from degradation at lower pHs. A coaxial electrospray technique was employed to achieve this. In all, the tested HA-VD system is a viable alternative for codelivery of VD, Ca2+, and PO43- to their target tissues.
This appears to release Vitamin D over the period of a week near the bones.
This gets around problems of vitamin D bioavailability due to poor gut, no gal bladder, and poor liver.
Do not know if this is commercially available
Nanoemulsion for of vitamin D applied topically or swished in the mouth has similar capabilities
Mucosal membranes (mouth, lungs, nose, intestines, etc) can activate Vitamin D – July 2020
Sublingual Vitamin D sometimes is better than tablet – April 2020
Topical Vitamin D contains
Topical is one of the many ways of increasing the vitamin D in your body
Topical is 2X to 50X more expensive than oral form
Topical is great for those who not want to swallow pillls nor fortifiy their food/drink with Vitamin D
Topical is one of the many gut-friendly forms of vitamin D (good bioavailability for those with poor guts
Topical is especially good form to apply directly to skin problems:
- i.e. Psoriasis Warts Burns Acne Eczema Wounds (lasts about a day)
The skin, like most tissues of the body, can fully-activate Vitamin D locally - no liver nor kidney needed.
Provides perhaps 100X higher concentration of Vitamin D to that portion than if same dose were taken orally
There were > 700 topical Vitamin D products on Amazon Aug, 2019
Creams. oils, patches, nanoemulsions, etc.
Suspect that topical Vitamin D is best absorbed where the skin gets Vitamin D naturally
- - - face and hands vs the back or the inside of arms
Nanoemulsions can also be applied topically under the tongue and inhaled
Vitamin D going thru the gut takes about a day to become activated
Fast-acting Vitamin D takes about 4 hours to become activated
Fast-acting is needed for medical emergencies, treating cold, treating flu, etc,
- Topical - cream, spray, oil on skin
- Sublingual vitamin D
- Mouth-wash - put powder of 50,000 IU capsules in 1/4 teaspoon of water
swallow when done - after a few minutes
Alternately - use Nanoemulsion form as a mouthwash
- Inhaled - via lungs
- Semi-activated Vitamin D
- is fast, but slight over-dosing might cause Calcium problems
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