Atherosclerosis Available online 21 June 2015, doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.06.034
Luiz Sergio F. Carvalho, MD MSc PhDa, b, Professor Andrei C. Sposito, MD PhDa,
•Vitamin D was implicated endothelium-mediated vasodilation and anti-coagulant activity.
•Vitamin D may reduce blood pressure, myocardial hypertrophy and arrhythmias.
•Association of CVD and VitD were not consistent in longitudinal studies and trials.
•Discussion on a critical bias on the methods for measuring plasma vitamin D.
•Misinterpretation of results and limiting conclusions of several studies on vitamin D.
A general concept of clinical benefit of vitamin D supplementation has emerged from the evidence in prevention of osteoporosis. From the cardiovascular point of view, clinical benefit of such supplementation remains less clear. Studies in vitro and in animal models demonstrated the expression of vitamin D receptors in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes.
Vitamin D has been directly implicated in
- endothelium-mediated vasodilation,
- anti-coagulant activity and
- inhibition of the inflammatory response.
Indirectly, it may favor the
- reduction of blood pressure,
- myocardial hypertrophy and
- ventricular arrhythmias.
In contrast to these mechanistic findings, cross-sectional, longitudinal and small clinical trials have not been consistent in demonstrating association between cardiovascular events and vitamin D. Besides, methodological issues in the tests for serum levels of vitamin D may also contribute to this puzzle.
Hence, in the current state of knowledge, it may be too early to consider or to rule out vitamin D as a tool to either estimate or mitigate residual cardiovascular risk. In this review, we discuss recent advances and potential limitations in mechanistic and clinical evidences that are outlining the framework of interaction between vitamin D and cardiovascular risk.
- Vitamin D is not a cardiovascular fad like Vitamins C, E, Folic Acid, selenium, beta-caroteen, etc. – Circulation Nov 2013
- C-reactive protein (heart disease marker) reduced by vitamin D – meta-analysis 2014, 2019
- Risk of Cardiac failure reduced 20 percent by 800 IU of vitamin D and Calcium – meta-analysis July 2014
- Magnesium prevents cardiovascular events – Meta-analysis March 2013
- Angina dramatically reduced by injections of vitamin D twice a month (300,000 IU) – Jan 2015
- Cardiovascular Diseases and Vitamin D – Review Feb 2015
- Atherosclerosis prevented by Ultraviolet light (UVB in mice) – Oct 2016
Cardiovascular category is associated with other categories: Diabetes 31, Omega-3 31 , Vitamin K 25 , Intervention 22 . Mortality 20 , Skin - Dark 18 , Magnesium 17 , Calcium 14 , Hypertension 14 , Trauma and surgery 13 , Stroke 13 , Kidney 12 , Metabolic Syndrome 11 , Seniors 10 , Pregnancy 8 as of Aug 2022
- Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
- Cardiovascular Disease is treated by Vitamin D - review Oct 2021
- Arterial Stiffness and Vitamins – only Vitamin D was found to help – meta-analysis Feb 2022
- Those raising Vitamin D above 30 ng were 1.4 X less likely to die of Heart Attack (VA 19 years) – Oct 2021
- Giving free vitamin D to every Iranian would pay for itself by just reducing CVD – Oct 2021
- Sudden Cardiac Arrest – 2.8 X higher risk if low vitamin D – 2019
- Cardiovascular death 1.5X more likely if less than 20 ng of Vitamin D – 22nd meta-analysis Nov 2019
- Peripheral arterial disease risk is 1.5X higher if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- Heart attack ICU costs cut in half by Vitamin D – Oct 2018
- Cholesterol is needed to produce both Vitamin D and Cortisol
- Overview Cholesterol and vitamin D
- Statins and vitamin D statins often reduce levels of vitamin D
- Statin side-effects are reduced by Vitamin D – US patent Application – April 2019
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