Atherosclerosis Available online 21 June 2015, doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.06.034
Luiz Sergio F. Carvalho, MD MSc PhDa, b, Professor Andrei C. Sposito, MD PhDa,
•Vitamin D was implicated endothelium-mediated vasodilation and anti-coagulant activity.
•Vitamin D may reduce blood pressure, myocardial hypertrophy and arrhythmias.
•Association of CVD and VitD were not consistent in longitudinal studies and trials.
•Discussion on a critical bias on the methods for measuring plasma vitamin D.
•Misinterpretation of results and limiting conclusions of several studies on vitamin D.
A general concept of clinical benefit of vitamin D supplementation has emerged from the evidence in prevention of osteoporosis. From the cardiovascular point of view, clinical benefit of such supplementation remains less clear. Studies in vitro and in animal models demonstrated the expression of vitamin D receptors in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes.
Vitamin D has been directly implicated in
- endothelium-mediated vasodilation,
- anti-coagulant activity and
- inhibition of the inflammatory response.
Indirectly, it may favor the
- reduction of blood pressure,
- myocardial hypertrophy and
- ventricular arrhythmias.
In contrast to these mechanistic findings, cross-sectional, longitudinal and small clinical trials have not been consistent in demonstrating association between cardiovascular events and vitamin D. Besides, methodological issues in the tests for serum levels of vitamin D may also contribute to this puzzle.
Hence, in the current state of knowledge, it may be too early to consider or to rule out vitamin D as a tool to either estimate or mitigate residual cardiovascular risk. In this review, we discuss recent advances and potential limitations in mechanistic and clinical evidences that are outlining the framework of interaction between vitamin D and cardiovascular risk.
- Vitamin D is not a cardiovascular fad like Vitamins C, E, Folic Acid, selenium, beta-caroteen, etc. – Circulation Nov 2013
- C-reactive protein (heart disease marker) reduced by vitamin D – meta-analysis 2014, 2019
- Risk of Cardiac failure reduced 20 percent by even a small amount of vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2014
- Magnesium prevents cardiovascular events – Meta-analysis March 2013
- Angina dramatically reduced by injections of vitamin D twice a month (300,000 IU) – Jan 2015
- Cardiovascular Diseases and Vitamin D – Review Feb 2015
- Atherosclerosis prevented by Ultraviolet light (UVB in mice) – Oct 2016
- Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
- Hypertension and vitamin D
- Overview Metabolic Syndrome and vitamin D
- Overview Stroke and vitamin D
- Heart Attack 647 items as of May 2018
- Arrhythmia OR “atrial fibrillation” 497 items as of May 2018
- (Arrhythmia OR “atrial fibrillation”) AND Magnesium 345 items as of May 2018
- "C-Reactive Protein" 1530 items as of June 2019
- TRIGLYCERIDES 863 items as of May 2018
- "Peripheral Artery Disease" 170 items as of July 2019
- "Sudden Cardiac Arrest" 98 items as of May 2018
- Search VitaminDWiki for CHF or "HEART FAILURE" 1220 items as of Aug 2017
- Search VitaminDWiki for Atherosclerosis 1510 items as of July 2019
- Cholesterol is needed to produce both Vitamin D and Cortisol
- Overview Cholesterol and vitamin D
- Statins and vitamin D statins often reduce levels of vitamin D