Atherosclerosis Available online 21 June 2015, doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.06.034
Luiz Sergio F. Carvalho, MD MSc PhDa, b, Professor Andrei C. Sposito, MD PhDa,
•Vitamin D was implicated endothelium-mediated vasodilation and anti-coagulant activity.
•Vitamin D may reduce blood pressure, myocardial hypertrophy and arrhythmias.
•Association of CVD and VitD were not consistent in longitudinal studies and trials.
•Discussion on a critical bias on the methods for measuring plasma vitamin D.
•Misinterpretation of results and limiting conclusions of several studies on vitamin D.
A general concept of clinical benefit of vitamin D supplementation has emerged from the evidence in prevention of osteoporosis. From the cardiovascular point of view, clinical benefit of such supplementation remains less clear. Studies in vitro and in animal models demonstrated the expression of vitamin D receptors in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes.
Vitamin D has been directly implicated in
- endothelium-mediated vasodilation,
- anti-coagulant activity and
- inhibition of the inflammatory response.
Indirectly, it may favor the
- reduction of blood pressure,
- myocardial hypertrophy and
- ventricular arrhythmias.
In contrast to these mechanistic findings, cross-sectional, longitudinal and small clinical trials have not been consistent in demonstrating association between cardiovascular events and vitamin D. Besides, methodological issues in the tests for serum levels of vitamin D may also contribute to this puzzle.
Hence, in the current state of knowledge, it may be too early to consider or to rule out vitamin D as a tool to either estimate or mitigate residual cardiovascular risk. In this review, we discuss recent advances and potential limitations in mechanistic and clinical evidences that are outlining the framework of interaction between vitamin D and cardiovascular risk.
- Vitamin D is not a cardiovascular fad like Vitamins C, E, Folic Acid, selenium, beta-caroteen, etc. – Circulation Nov 2013
- C-reactive protein (heart disease marker) reduced by vitamin D – meta-analysis 2014, 2019
- Risk of Cardiac failure reduced 20 percent by 800 IU of vitamin D and Calcium – meta-analysis July 2014
- Magnesium prevents cardiovascular events – Meta-analysis March 2013
- Angina dramatically reduced by injections of vitamin D twice a month (300,000 IU) – Jan 2015
- Cardiovascular Diseases and Vitamin D – Review Feb 2015
- Atherosclerosis prevented by Ultraviolet light (UVB in mice) – Oct 2016
- Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
- Hypertension and vitamin D
- Overview Metabolic Syndrome and vitamin D
- Overview Stroke and vitamin D
- Peripheral arterial disease risk is 1.5X higher if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- Peripheral Arterial Disease 3.7 X more likely in diabetics with low vitamin D – June 2019
- Heart attack ICU costs cut in half by Vitamin D – Oct 2018
- Heart Failure and Vitamin D meta-analyses - 2016, 2019
- Cardiovascular death 1.5X more likely if less than 20 ng of Vitamin D – 22nd meta-analysis Nov 2019
- Vitamin D supplementation reduces many Cardiovascular Disease markers– meta-analysis July 2018
- Cardiovascular Prevention with Omega-3 (finally using high doses) – Sept 2019
- Higher Omega-3 index (4 to 8 percent) associated with 30 percent less risk of coronary disease (10 studies) July 2017
A poor Vitamin D Receptor can block Vitamin D in blood from getting to tissues
- Heart Failure 15X more likely if poor VDR, even if good level of vitamin D (China) – March 2019
- Coronary Artery Disease without diabetes 5 times more likely if VDR gene problems – meta-analysis May 2016