PLoS One. 2015 Mar 24;10(3):e0121995. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121995. eCollection 2015.
Qiu Z1, Tan Y1, Zeng H1, Wang L1, Wang D1, Luo J1, Zhang L1, Huang Y1, Chen JA2, Shu W1.
Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.
To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.
Rats continuously drank
- tap water (TW),
- bottled natural water (bNW),
- bottled mineralized water (bMW), or
- bottled purified water (bPW) for three generations.
The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups) were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.
Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.
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