Toggle Health Problems and D

Severe sarcopenia (loss of muscle) 6 X more likely in women with rheumatoid arthritis having low vitamin D – Oct 2021

Serum vitamin D status inversely associates with a prevalence of severe sarcopenia among female patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 14;11(1):20485. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99894-6.
Hiroto Minamino # 1 2, Masao Katsushima # 3, Mie Torii 4, Wataru Yamamoto 5, Yoshihito Fujita 1, Kaori Ikeda 1, Emi Okamura 1, Kosaku Murakami 3, Ryu Watanabe 6 7, Koichi Murata 6 8, Hiromu Ito 6 8 9, Masao Tanaka 6, Hidenori Arai 10, Shuichi Matsuda 8, Akio Morinobu 3 6, Nobuya Inagaki 1, Motomu Hashimoto 6 7


Sarcopenia (muscle loss) fought by Vitamin D, exercise and protein - many studies page contains

To gain muscle, many studies have found that you need some of the following:
Exercise - just even walking (Intermittent high intensity exercise is much better)
Vitamin D - at least 800 IU/day,
    Loading dose will show improvements in weeks instead of 4+ months
Protein - perhaps 1gm/kg/day in a form appropriate for existing stomach acid
Calcium - 300 mg?

Includes the following studies:

  • Muscle loss with aging (Sarcopenia) is 7.7 X more likely if Vitamin D deficient – July 2023
  • Every trial found Scopenia to be associated with low vitamin D - Meta-analysis 2018
  • Sarcopenia 1.6X more likely if you have a poor VDR – Nov 2020

See also Bone Health   reduce falls and fractures   Frailty and Vitamin D - many studies   Overview Muscles and Vitamin D

VitaminDWiki pages containing SARCOPENIA in title
(16 as of Oct 2021)

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 18
Title Modified
Sarcopenia (muscle loss) is reduced by vitamin D and many other supplements - July 2023 27 Aug, 2023
Sarcopenia (muscle loss) fought by Vitamin D, exercise and protein - many studies 11 Jul, 2023
Sarcopenia with obesity is more likely if dark skin, diabetes, OR COPD (all associated with low vitamin D) 16 Oct, 2021
Severe sarcopenia (loss of muscle) 6 X more likely in women with rheumatoid arthritis having low vitamin D – Oct 2021 16 Oct, 2021
Loss of muscle strength –sarcopenia – one of the suspects is vitamin D – Aug 2012 16 Oct, 2021
Sarcopenia (muscle loss) is 1.6X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – July 2020 23 Jul, 2020
Sarcopenia reduction: Protein, Leucine, Omega-3, Vitamin D, and exercise - hypothesis Aug 2018 30 Jan, 2020
Muscle loss (sarcopenia) may be both prevented and treated by Omega-3 – Feb 2019 23 Feb, 2019
Seniors can restore lost muscle (Sarcopenia) – first restore vitamin D, then exercise – July 2018 13 Jul, 2018
Sarcopenia does not officially exist in Australia, but 1 in 3 of their seniors have it - July 2018 03 Jul, 2018
Sarcopenia: Nutrition and physical activity – systematic review – Jan 2017 10 Mar, 2017
Added 1 lb of muscle to sarcopenia adults in 13 weeks with just 800 IU vitamin D and protein – RCT Jan 2017 31 Jan, 2017
Hypothesis: Sarcopenia and other senior problems are related to low gastic acid 12 May, 2015
Sarcopenia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (vitamin D not mentioned) – Sept 2013 07 Mar, 2015
Hypothesis: Sarcopenia and other senior problems are related to low gastric acid 01 Feb, 2015
Vitamin D is one of the treatments for sarcopenia – Nov 2012 31 Jan, 2015
No correlation found between vitamin D and sarcopenia – German dissertation Jan 2013 22 Jan, 2013
Novel treatment approaches to cachexia and sarcopenia: 13 Apr, 2010

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Sarcopenia is an age-related disease with an increased risk of mortality. It is emerging that low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] affects the sarcopenic state in general, but in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), these associations are not understood although the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is high in RA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of older female outpatients from our cohort (KURAMA) database. We measured skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, and gait-speed to diagnose severe sarcopenia. The serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A total of 156 female patients with RA (sarcopenia:44.9%, severe sarcopenia: 29.5%, and without sarcopenia: 25.6%) were enrolled. Classification of vitamin D status at a cutoff point of median 25(OH)D concentration revealed that low 25(OH)D status was associated with a high prevalence of severe sarcopenia and with low measured values of muscle mass, handgrip, and gait speed. Furthermore, multivariable logistic regression analysis identified that low 25(OH)D status was associated with a high prevalence of severe sarcopenia (OR 6.00; 95% CI 1.99-18.08).The same association was observed when the cut-off value was set at 20 ng/ml. In components of sarcopenia, both low physical performance and muscle mass were associated with low 25(OH)D status. In conclusion, vitamin D status was inversely associated with severe sarcopenia, low physical performance, and low skeletal muscle mass. Modification of vitamin D status including vitamin D supplementation should be investigated as a therapeutic strategy for sarcopenic patients with RA.


  1. Chen, L. K. et al. Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the asian working group for aarcopenia. J. Am. Med. Dir. Assoc. 15, 95–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2013.11.025 (2014). - DOI - PubMed
  2. Beaudart, C., Zaaria, M., Pasleau, F., Reginster, J. Y. & Bruyere, O. Health outcomes of sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 12, e0169548. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169548 (2017). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  3. Yeung, S. S. Y. et al. Sarcopenia and its association with falls and fractures in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 10, 485–500. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12411 (2019). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  4. Bowen, T. S., Schuler, G. & Adams, V. Skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia and sarcopenia: molecular pathophysiology and impact of exercise training. J. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 6, 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12043 (2015). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  5. Yoshimura, Y. et al. Interventions for treating sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. J. Am. Med. Dir. Assoc. 18, 553 e551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2017.03.019 (2017). - DOI
  6. Petermann-Rocha, F. et al. Factors associated with sarcopenia: a cross-sectional analysis using UK Biobank. Maturitas 133, 60–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.01.004 (2020). - DOI - PubMed
  7. Sokka, T., Hakkinen, A., Krishnan, E. & Hannonen, P. Similar prediction of mortality by the health assessment questionnaire in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the general population. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63, 494–497. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2003.009530 (2004). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  8. Cramer, J. T. et al. Impacts of high-protein oral nutritional supplements among malnourished men and women with sarcopenia: a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. J. Am. Med. Dir. Assoc. 17, 1044–1055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2016.08.009 (2016). - DOI - PubMed
  9. Cruz-Jentoft, A. J. & Sayer, A. A. Sarcopenia. The Lancet 393, 2636–2646. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(19)31138-9 (2019). - DOI
  10. Torii, M. et al. Prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Mod. Rheumatol. 29, 589–595. https://doi.org/10.1080/14397595.2018.1510565 (2019). - DOI - PubMed
  11. Wu, C. H. et al. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia in older Taiwanese living in rural community: the Tianliao Old People study 04. Geriatr. Gerontol. Int. 14(Suppl 1), 69–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12233 (2014). - DOI - PubMed
  12. Giles, J. T. et al. Abnormal body composition phenotypes in older rheumatoid arthritis patients: association with disease characteristics and pharmacotherapies. Arthritis Rheum. 59, 807–815. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.23719 (2008). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  13. Dzik, K. P. & Kaczor, J. J. Mechanisms of vitamin D on skeletal muscle function: oxidative stress, energy metabolism and anabolic state. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 119, 825–839. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04104-x (2019). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  14. Wang, J. et al. vitamin D is related to handgrip strength in adult men aged 50 years and over: a population study from the TCLSIH cohort study. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 90, 753–765. https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.13952 (2019). - DOI
  15. Wicherts, I. S. et al. vitamin D status predicts physical performance and its decline in older persons. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 2058–2065. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-1525 (2007). - DOI - PubMed
  16. Beaudart, C. et al. The effects of vitamin D on skeletal muscle strength, muscle mass, and muscle power: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 99, 4336–4345. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-1742 (2014). - DOI - PubMed
  17. Gkekas, N. K. et al. The effect of vitamin D plus protein supplementation on sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Maturitas 145, 56–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2021.01.002 (2021). - DOI - PubMed
  18. Furuya, T. et al. Prevalence of and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in 4,793 Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Rheumatol. 32, 1081–1087. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-013-2216-4 (2013). - DOI - PubMed
  19. Hashimoto, M. et al. Increase of hemoglobin levels by anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab) in rheumatoid arthritis. PLoS ONE 9, e98202. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098202 (2014). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  20. Minamino, H. et al. Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio associates with hypertension and current disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study. Arthritis Res. Ther. 23, 96. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13075-021-02479-x (2021). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  21. Singh, J. A. et al. 2015 American college of rheumatology guideline for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res.. (Hoboken) 68, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.22783 (2016). - DOI
  22. Minamino, H. et al. Habitual fish intake negatively correlates with prevalence of frailty among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Sci. Rep. 11, 5104. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84479-0 (2021). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  23. Chen, L. K. et al. Asian working group for sarcopenia: 2019 consensus update on sarcopenia diagnosis and treatment. J. Am. Med. Dir. Assoc. 21, 300–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2019.12.012 (2020). - DOI - PubMed
  24. Rubenstein, L. Z., Harker, J. O., Salva, A., Guigoz, Y. & Vellas, B. Screening for undernutrition in geriatric practice: developing the short-form mini-nutritional assessment (MNA-SF). J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 56, M366-372. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.6.m366 (2001). - DOI - PubMed
  25. Pearce, S. H. & Cheetham, T. D. Diagnosis and management of vitamin D deficiency. BMJ 340, b5664. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b5664 (2010). - DOI - PubMed
  26. Yamada, Y. et al. Glucocorticoid use is an independent risk factor for developing sarcopenia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: from the CHIKARA study. Clin. Rheumatol. 39, 1757–1764. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-04929-4 (2020). - DOI - PubMed
  27. Bonnet, N., Bourgoin, L., Biver, E., Douni, E. & Ferrari, S. RANKL inhibition improves muscle strength and insulin sensitivity and restores bone mass. J. Clin. Invest. 129, 3214–3223. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI125915 (2019). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  28. Marozik, P., Rudenka, A., Kobets, K. & Rudenka, E. vitamin D status, bone mineral density, and VDR gene polymorphism in a cohort of Belarusian postmenopausal women. Nutrients https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030837 (2021). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  29. Okereke, O. I. et al. Effect of long-term vitamin D3 supplementation vs placebo on risk of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms and on change in mood scores: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 324, 471–480. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.10224 (2020). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  30. Haque, U. J. & Bartlett, S. J. Relationships among vitamin D, disease activity, pain and disability in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 28, 745–747 (2010). - PubMed
  31. Rossini, M. et al. vitamin D deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence, determinants and associations with disease activity and disability. Arthritis Res. Ther. 12, R216. https://doi.org/10.1186/ar3195 (2010). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  32. Toffanello, E. D. et al. vitamin D and physical performance in elderly subjects: the Pro.V.A study. PLoS One 7, e34950. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034950 (2012). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  33. Vaes, A. M. M. et al. The association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, physical performance and frailty status in older adults. Eur. J. Nutr. 58, 1173–1181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1634-0 (2019). - DOI - PubMed
  34. Jain, S. K., Parsanathan, R., Achari, A. E., Kanikarla-Marie, P. & Bocchini, J. A. Jr. Glutathione stimulates vitamin D regulatory and glucose-metabolism genes, lowers oxidative stress and inflammation, and increases 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in blood: a novel approach to treat 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Antioxid Redox Signal 29, 1792–1807. https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2017.7462 (2018). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  35. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A. et al. vitamin D receptor expression in human muscle tissue decreases with age. J. Bone Miner. Res. 19, 265–269. https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2004.19.2.265 (2004). - DOI - PubMed
  36. Ryan, Z. C. et al. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption and dynamics in human skeletal muscle cells. J. Biol. Chem. 291, 1514–1528. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.684399 (2016). - DOI - PubMed
  37. Sinha, A., Hollingsworth, K. G., Ball, S. & Cheetham, T. Improving the vitamin D status of vitamin D deficient adults is associated with improved mitochondrial oxidative function in skeletal muscle. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 98, E509-513. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-3592 (2013). - DOI - PubMed
  38. Charoenngam, N. & Holick, M. F. Immunologic effects of vitamin D on human health and disease. Nutrients https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072097 (2020). - DOI - PubMed - PMC
  39. Tang, J. et al. Calcitriol suppresses antiretinal autoimmunity through inhibitory effects on the Th17 effector response. J. Immunol. 182, 4624–4632. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0801543 (2009). - DOI - PubMed
  40. Villaggio, B., Soldano, S. & Cutolo, M. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 downregulates aromatase expression and inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 30, 934–938 (2012). - PubMed
  41. Boonstra, A. et al. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 has a direct effect on naive CD4(+) T cells to enhance the development of Th2 cells. J. Immunol. 167, 4974–4980. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.167.9.4974 (2001). - DOI - PubMed
  42. Gregori, S., Giarratana, N., Smiroldo, S., Uskokovic, M. & Adorini, L. A 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) analog enhances regulatory T-cells and arrests autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Diabetes 51, 1367–1374. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.51.5.1367 (2002). - DOI - PubMed
  43. McInnes, I. B. & Schett, G. Cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 7, 429–442. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2094 (2007). - DOI - PubMed
  44. Mouterde, G. et al. Association between vitamin D deficiency and disease activity, disability, and radiographic progression in early rheumatoid arthritis: The ESPOIR cohort. J. Rheumatol. 47, 1624–1628. https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.190795 (2020). - DOI - PubMed

Created by admin. Last Modification: Saturday October 16, 2021 16:09:43 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 8)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
16434 sarcopenia rheum.pdf admin 16 Oct, 2021 1.34 Mb 286