Each of the following are associated with low vitamin D
Table of contents
Diversity and Equality in Health and Care (2018) 15(4): 175-183
Kristy Du1, Scott Goates 2, Mary Beth Arensberg*3, Suzette Pereira4 and Trudy Gaillard 5
1 PepsiCo; Champaign, Illinois, US
2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Abbott Laboratories; Sylmar, California
3 Abbott Nutrition Division of Abbott; 3300 Stelzer Road, Columbus, Ohio
4 Abbott Nutrition Division of Abbott; Columbus, Ohio
5Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Florida International University; Miami, Florida
What is Known About the Topic
- Individuals are living longer than ever before and in the United States the older adult population is becoming more ethnically and racially diverse.
- There can be genetic variability in body mass index and body composition.
- Sarcopenia and obesity contribute to poor health outcomes and when occurring together as sarcopenic obesity, can cause even further health complications that limit the human condition and functionality.
- Few studies have specifically considered these conditions across different racial/ethnic populations and with advancing age.
What this Paper Adds About the Topic
- This study documented that the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity increased with age and differed by sex and racial/ethnic group.
- The study further demonstrated a close association of sarcopenia and obesity, particularly for older adults.
- Hispanics were found to have the highest prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity and Non-Hispanic Blacks had the lowest. Within Non-Hispanic Blacks, there was a greater discrepancy between sex, with males having a higher prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity compared to females.
- With the new recognition of sarcopenia as a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reportable condition and assignment of an ICD-10 CM code for the sarcopenia, this research underscores the importance of identifying and intervening for sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity, especially among racial/ethnic groups who may be at higher risk.
Sarcopenia is the natural age-associated loss of muscle mass/function, often occurring simultaneously with obesity, especially in older adults. Sarcopenia and obesity contribute to poor health outcomes and when occurring together as sarcopenic obesity (SO) can cause further health complications. Few studies have specifically considered these conditions across different racial/ethnic populations. This study examined the prevalence of sarcopenia and SO among U.S. adults by different age, sex, and racial/ethnic groups, using 1999-2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and its racial/ethnic subpopulation groupings. Sarcopenia was defined as low appendicular lean mass (adjusted for Body Mass Index (BMI) of <0.789 kg/ m2 for males, <0.512 kg/m2 for females) and self-reported functional limitation. Obesity was defined as BMI >30 kg/m2 with SO defined as those meeting criteria for both sarcopenia and obesity. The analysis included 4367 adult subjects; for each race/ethnic subpopulation, sarcopenia prevalence increased with age. Sarcopenia prevalence varied by sex and race/ ethnic subpopulation: Hispanic (26.8% male, 27.2% female); Non-Hispanic (NH) White (15.5% male, 15.1% female); NH Black (8.6% male, 1.6% female); and Other (16.5% male, 23.2% female). Sarcopenic obesity also increased with age and varied by sex and race/ethnic subpopulation: Hispanic (8.57% male, 8.87% female); NH White (6.48% male, 8.06% female); NH Black (3.95% male, 1.12% female); and Other (4.46% male, 0.0% female). Increased awareness of variability in sarcopenia/SO may help develop effective screenings/ care management and interventions/public health policies to maintain functionality and reduce health disparities among an increasingly diverse U.S. older adult popu
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To gain muscle, many studies have found that you need some of the following:
Exercise - just even walking (Intermittent high intensity exercise is much better)
Vitamin D - at least 800 IU/day,
Loading dose will show improvements in weeks instead of 4+ months
Protein - perhaps 1gm/kg/day in a form appropriate for existing stomach acid
Calcium - 300 mg?
Includes the following studies:
- Muscle loss with aging (Sarcopenia) is 7.7 X more likely if Vitamin D deficient – July 2023
- Every trial found Scopenia to be associated with low vitamin D - Meta-analysis 2018
- Sarcopenia 1.6X more likely if you have a poor VDR – Nov 2020
Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains
- FACT: People who are obese have less vitamin D in their blood
- FACT: Obese need a higher dose of vitamin D to get to the same level of vit D
- FACT: When obese people lose weight the vitamin D level in their blood increases
- FACT: Adding Calcium, perhaps in the form of fortified milk, often reduces weight
- FACT: 168 trials for vitamin D intervention of obesity as of Dec 2021
- FACT: Less weight gain by senior women with > 30 ng of vitamin D
- FACT: Dieters lost additional 5 lbs if vitamin D supplementation got them above 32 ng - RCT
- FACT: Obese lost 3X more weight by adding $10 of Vitamin D
- FACT: Those with darker skins were more likely to be obese Sept 2014
- OBSERVATION: Low Vitamin D while pregnancy ==> more obese child and adult
- OBSERVATION: Many mammals had evolved to add fat and vitamin D in the autumn
- and lose both in the Spring - unfortunately humans have forgotten to lose the fat in the Spring
- SPECULATION: Low vitamin D might be one of the causes of obesity – several studies
- SUGGESTION: Probably need more than 4,000 IU to lose weight if very low on vitamin D due to
risk factors such as overweight, age, dark skin, live far from equator,shut-in, etc.
- Obesity category has
414 items See also: Weight loss and Vitamin D - many studies Child Obesity and Vitamin D - many studies
- Normal weight Obese (50 ng = 125 nanomole)
- Sarcopenia with obesity is more likely if dark skin, diabetes, OR COPD (all associated with low vitamin D)
- 26 health factors increase the risk of COVID-19 – all are proxies for low vitamin D
- Half of obese black teens achieved at least 30 ng of Vitamin D with 5,000 IU daily – June 2018
- Stroke outcome 6.9 X worse if black and overweight (all three related via low vitamin D) – March 2018
- Indoor pollution is a problem with obese black asthmatic children – May 2018
- Blacks are more obese, have lower Vitamin D, and have more Cancer etc. than whites – Feb 2018
- Increase in Vitamin D deficiency with weight and skin darkness – chart – March 2016
- 5,000 IU daily or 50,000 IU Vitamin D weekly repleted many dark skinned adolescents – RCT Dec 2015
- Obese diabetics with dark skins not benefit from 6,000 IU of vitamin D daily (no surprise) – RCT March 2015
- African-Americans at high risk of obesity and diabetes - 2011
- Bariatric surgery less than 30 ng of vitamin D – 82 pcnt teens, 100 pcnt of black teens – June 2012
- Low vitamin D associated with obesity-related diseases for ethnic minorities – Sept 2011
- Reasons for low response to vitamin D
- Telomeres improved when obese blacks took 2000 IU of vitamin D daily – Oct 2011
- Black women lacking Calcium and Vitamin D weighed more – Aug 2011
- Dark skinned obese not helped much by weekly 50000 IU dose of vitamin D – May 2011
- Black obese children had low vitamin D and more fat under skin than whites – Mar 2011
- Obesity in American-Indians and African-American teens
- Vitamin D3 in obese and non obese African American children – 2008
- Low vitamin D in teens: especially black or overweight – June 2010
COPD fought by Vitamin D - many studies 59 pages had COPD in title as of Oct 2021Sarcopenia with obesity is more likely if dark skin, diabetes, OR COPD (all associated with low vitamin D)
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