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Sarcopenia with obesity is more likely if dark skin, diabetes, OR COPD (all associated with low vitamin D)

Each of the following are associated with low vitamin D
dark skin

Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity Vary with Race/Ethnicity and Advancing Age

Diversity and Equality in Health and Care (2018) 15(4): 175-183
Kristy Du1, Scott Goates 2, Mary Beth Arensberg*3, Suzette Pereira4 and Trudy Gaillard 5
1 PepsiCo; Champaign, Illinois, US
2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Abbott Laboratories; Sylmar, California
3 Abbott Nutrition Division of Abbott; 3300 Stelzer Road, Columbus, Ohio
4 Abbott Nutrition Division of Abbott; Columbus, Ohio
5Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Florida International University; Miami, Florida

What is Known About the Topic

  • Individuals are living longer than ever before and in the United States the older adult population is becoming more ethnically and racially diverse.
  • There can be genetic variability in body mass index and body composition.
  • Sarcopenia and obesity contribute to poor health outcomes and when occurring together as sarcopenic obesity, can cause even further health complications that limit the human condition and functionality.
  • Few studies have specifically considered these conditions across different racial/ethnic populations and with advancing age.

What this Paper Adds About the Topic

  • This study documented that the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity increased with age and differed by sex and racial/ethnic group.
  • The study further demonstrated a close association of sarcopenia and obesity, particularly for older adults.
  • Hispanics were found to have the highest prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity and Non-Hispanic Blacks had the lowest. Within Non-Hispanic Blacks, there was a greater discrepancy between sex, with males having a higher prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity compared to females.
  • With the new recognition of sarcopenia as a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reportable condition and assignment of an ICD-10 CM code for the sarcopenia, this research underscores the importance of identifying and intervening for sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity, especially among racial/ethnic groups who may be at higher risk.


Sarcopenia is the natural age-associated loss of muscle mass/function, often occurring simultaneously with obesity, especially in older adults. Sarcopenia and obesity contribute to poor health outcomes and when occurring together as sarcopenic obesity (SO) can cause further health complications. Few studies have specifically considered these conditions across different racial/ethnic populations. This study examined the prevalence of sarcopenia and SO among U.S. adults by different age, sex, and racial/ethnic groups, using 1999-2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and its racial/ethnic subpopulation groupings. Sarcopenia was defined as low appendicular lean mass (adjusted for Body Mass Index (BMI) of <0.789 kg/ m2 for males, <0.512 kg/m2 for females) and self-reported functional limitation. Obesity was defined as BMI >30 kg/m2 with SO defined as those meeting criteria for both sarcopenia and obesity. The analysis included 4367 adult subjects; for each race/ethnic subpopulation, sarcopenia prevalence increased with age. Sarcopenia prevalence varied by sex and race/ ethnic subpopulation: Hispanic (26.8% male, 27.2% female); Non-Hispanic (NH) White (15.5% male, 15.1% female); NH Black (8.6% male, 1.6% female); and Other (16.5% male, 23.2% female). Sarcopenic obesity also increased with age and varied by sex and race/ethnic subpopulation: Hispanic (8.57% male, 8.87% female); NH White (6.48% male, 8.06% female); NH Black (3.95% male, 1.12% female); and Other (4.46% male, 0.0% female). Increased awareness of variability in sarcopenia/SO may help develop effective screenings/ care management and interventions/public health policies to maintain functionality and reduce health disparities among an increasingly diverse U.S. older adult popu
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Sarcopenia (muscle loss) fought by Vitamin D, exercise and protein - many studies contains

To gain muscle, many studies have found that you need some of the following:
Exercise - just even walking (Intermittent high intensity exercise is much better)
Vitamin D - at least 800 IU/day,
    Loading dose will show improvements in weeks instead of 4+ months
Protein - perhaps 1gm/kg/day in a form appropriate for existing stomach acid
Calcium - 300 mg?

Includes the following studies:

  • Muscle loss with aging (Sarcopenia) is 7.7 X more likely if Vitamin D deficient – July 2023
  • Every trial found Scopenia to be associated with low vitamin D - Meta-analysis 2018
  • Sarcopenia 1.6X more likely if you have a poor VDR – Nov 2020

See also Bone Health   reduce falls and fractures   Frailty and Vitamin D - many studies   Overview Muscles and Vitamin D

Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains

Obese need more Vitamin D

  • Normal weight     Obese     (50 ng = 125 nanomole)

Click here for 2014 study


  • Normal weight     Obese     (50 ng = 125 nanomole)

Items in both categories Obesity and Dark Skin

COPD fought by Vitamin D - many studies 59 pages had COPD in title as of Oct 2021

Created by admin. Last Modification: Saturday October 16, 2021 17:31:15 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 10)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
16436 sarcopenic obesity.jpg admin 16 Oct, 2021 73.40 Kb 230
16435 Race sarcopenia 2018.pdf admin 16 Oct, 2021 388.35 Kb 355