Variation in the vitamin D receptor gene, plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and risk of premenstrual symptoms
Genes & Nutrition volume 16, Article number: 15 (2021) DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/s12263-021-00696-2
Alicia C. Jarosz, Daniel Noori, Tara Zeitoun, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo & Ahmed El-Sohemy
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Vitamin D Receptor activation can be increased by any of: Resveratrol, Omega-3, Magnesium, Zinc, Quercetin, non-daily Vit D, Curcumin, intense exercise, Ginger, Essential oils, etc Note: The founder of VitaminDWiki uses 10 of the 13 known VDR activators
Items in both categories Women and Vitamin D Receptor are listed here:
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- Obesity 1.5 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis Nov 2019
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- Uterine Fibroids (uterine leiomyoma, need hysterectomy) 1.9 more likely if a Vitamin D receptor problem – Sept 2015
- Endometriosis treated, and perhaps prevented, by vitamin D - many studies
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Vitamin D status has been associated with the presence and severity of several premenstrual symptoms (PMSx) in some, but not all studies. Inconsistencies among findings may be explained by unaccounted genetic variation in the vitamin D receptor (VDR).
To determine whether associations between vitamin D status and individual PMSx are influenced by VDR genotype.
Seven hundred sixteen women aged 20-29 years old from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study provided plasma samples and completed a questionnaire on the presence and severity of 15 common PMSx. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was measured and participants were categorized into sufficient (≥ 50 nmol/L) and insufficient (< 50 nmol/L) vitamin D status groups. DNA was obtained from blood samples to genotype for a common VDR single nucleotide variant, rs796858. Using logistic regression, odds of experiencing PMSx were compared between vitamin D-sufficient and insufficient women, stratified by genotype.
Among CC homozygotes, insufficient vitamin D status was associated with higher odds of experiencing premenstrual fatigue (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.40, 4.56) and nausea (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.00, 5.95). Among TT homozygotes, insufficient vitamin D status was associated with lower odds of experiencing fatigue (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20, 0.97) and increased appetite (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.22, 1.04). Insufficient vitamin D status was associated with higher odds of increased appetite in women with the CT genotype (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.03, 3.07). VDR genotype modified the association between vitamin D status and the following PMSx: increased appetite (interaction p = 0.027), fatigue (interaction p = 0.016), and nausea (interaction p = 0.039).
We found evidence that VDR genotype may modify the association between 25(OH)D and some PMSx. Insufficient 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of premenstrual fatigue in those with the CC genotype, but lower risk in those with the TT genotype.