Effect of vitamin D3 seasonal supplementation with 1500 IU/day in north Italian children (DINOS study).
Ital J Pediatr. 2019 Jan 28;45(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s13052-018-0590-x.
1500 IU is not enough for children who are:
- Older (have larger bodies)
- Dark Skinned
- Indoors much of the time
Latitude of 45 degrees = North Italy = Minneapolis, Minn.
Infant-Child category starts with
- No consensus on MINIMUM International Units (IU) for healthy infant of normal weight
- 400 IU Vitamin D is no longer enough
Was OK in the past century, but D levels have been dropping for a great many reasons.
FDA doubled the vitamin D level in milk in July 2016
- No consensus: range is 600 to 1600 IU – based on many randomized controlled trials
- Fewer infants were vitamin D deficient when they got 800 IU – RCT Feb 2014
- 1600 IU was the conclusion of three JAMA studies
1000 IU recommended in France and Finland – 2013 - appears to be a good level
A recommended level may be agreed upon around the world by 2020
- 5X less mite allergy after add vitamin D
- Child bone fractures with low vitamin D were 55X more likely to need surgery
- 75 % of SIDS had low vitamin D
- Children stayed in ICU 3.5 days longer if low vitamin D – Dec 2015
- 5 out of 6 children who died in pediatric critical care unit had low vitamin D – May 2014
Having a good level of vitamin D cuts in half the amount of:
- Asthma, Chronic illness, Doctor visits, Allergies, infection
Respiratory Tract Infection, Growing pains, Bed wetting
Need even more IUs of vitamin D to get a good level if;
- Have little vitamin D: premie, twin, mother did not get much sun access
- Get little vitamin D: dark skin, little access to sun
- Vitamin D is consumed faster than normal due to sickness
- Older (need at least 100 IU/kilogram, far more if obese)
- Not get any vitamin D from formula (breast fed) or (fortified) milk
Note – formula does not even provide 400 IU of vitamin D daily
Infants-Children need Vitamin D
- Sun is great – well known for 1,000’s of years.
US govt (1934) even said infants should be out in the sun
- One country recommended 2,000 IU daily for decades – with no known problems
- As with adults, infants and children can have loading doses and rarely need tests
- Daily dose appears to be best, but monthly seems OK
- Vitamin D is typically given to infants in the form of drops
big difference in taste between brands
can also use water-soluable form of vitamin D in milk, food, juice,
- Infants have evolved to get a big boost of vitamin D immediately after birth
Colostrum has 3X more vitamin D than breast milk - provided the mother has any vitamin D to spare
- 100 IU per kg of infant July 2011, Poland etc.
More than 100 IU/kg is probably better
Many infants reject vitamin D drops, even when put on nipple
I speculate that the rejection is due to one or more of: additives, taste, and oils.
Infants have a hard time digesting oils, 1999 1997 and palm oils W.A. Price 1 2 3
Coconut oil, such as in D-Drops, is digested by infants. 1, 2 3
Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D has NO additves, taste, oil
One capsule of 50,000 Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D could be stirred into monthly formula
this would result in ~1,600 IUs per day for infant, and higher dose with weight/age/formula consumption
523 items in the category Infant/Child See also
- breastfed 962 items as of Sept 2017
- "BIRTH DEFECTS" 172 items as of July 2016
- Stunting OR “low birth weight” OR LBW OR preemie OR preemies OR preterm 1940 items as of Oct 2018
- "SUDDEN INFANT DEATH" OR SIDS 177 items as of Nov 2018
- Overview of Rickets and Vitamin D
- Youth category listing has
140 items along with related searches
Mazzoleni S1, Magni G2,3, Toderini D4.
1 Primary Care Paediatrician Azienda ULSS 6 Euganea Regione Veneto, Polistudio Pediatrico, via D'Annunzio 3/A, Piove di Sacco, Padova, Italy. stefano.mazzoleni at aulss6.veneto.it.
2 Senior Biostatistician, NRC Azienda Ospedaliera Padova, Padova, Italy.
3 Unità di Ricerca Clinica, Istituto Oncologico Veneto, Padova, Italy.
4 Endocrinologist and General Practitioner Azienda ULSS 6 Euganea Regione Veneto, Studio via Benizzi 6, Padova, Italy.
The appropriate dose of vitamin D supplementation in children is still debated. We calculated that the recommended dose of 600-1000 IU vitamin D3/day is not sufficient to reach a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) level of at least 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l) in north Italian children > 12 months. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of seasonal supplementation with 1500 IU (=37.5 μg) vitamin D3/day.
DINOS (D-vitamIN Oral Supplementation) study was a pilot, monocentric, non-random case-control register study. It was conducted in a paediatric primary care setting near Padova (North Italy, 45°N latitude). The data of 203 children (girls:boys 1:1,33) aged 2-15 years, collected between November 2010 and January 2015, were analysed. Active group A (n = 82) were given 1500 IU vitamin D3/day from November to April; control Group B (n = 121) received no supplementation. The serum 25-OH-D test was part of a laboratory tests panel and performed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay method.
Serum 25-OH-D mean level + standard deviation throughout the period was 32 + 13 ng/ml (80 + 32 nmol/l) in group A vs 22 + 10 ng/ml (55 + 25 nmol/l) in group B. In group A 12% had vitamin D deficiency 25-OH-D < 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) and 1.2% severe vitamin D deficiency 25-OH-D < 10 ng/ml (25 nmol/l). In group B 46% had vitamin D deficiency and 9% severe deficiency (P < 0.001). In group A mean levels were normal or near-normal all the year except in May. Group B reached mean 25-OH-D levels close to 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l) only in late summer. The active group mean 25-OH-D level was normal in preschoolers and schoolers but not in adolescents. Non-white children had a three-times vitamin D deficiency probability despite supplementation.
Vitamin D supplementation with at least 1500 IU vitamin D3/day from November to April was found appropriate for children in North Italy. A prolongation until May could be useful. Higher doses and/or prolonged periods could be more appropriate especially in adolescents and in non-white children.