Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, pp 1–11. Online: 20 Feb 2017, DOI: 10.1007/s11154-017-9409-0
John Jacob Cannell
An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early childhood vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 40 ng/ml] cause some cases of autism. Vitamin D is metabolized into a seco-steroid hormone that regulates about 3% of the 26,000 genes in the coding human genome. It is also a neurosteroid that is active in brain development, having effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, calcium signaling, neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it also appears to have an effect on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity.
Children who are, or who are destined to become, autistic have lower 25(OH)D levels at 3 months of gestation, at birth and at age 8 compared to their unaffected siblings.
Two open label trials found high dose vitamin D improves the core symptoms of autism in about 75% of autistic children.
A few of the improvements were remarkable. The vitamin D doses used in these children were 300 IU/KG/day up to a maximum of 5000 IU/day (highest final 25(OH)D level reached was 45 ng/ml). The other study used 150,000 IU/month IM as well as 400 IU/day [highest final 25(OH)D level was 52 ng/ml]. These two open label trials were recently confirmed with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using 300 IU/kg/day with a maximum of 5000 IU/day and resulted in effects similar to the two open label studies.
In terms of prevention, a recent small study showed vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy (5000 IU/day) and during infancy and early childhood (1000 IU/day) significantly reduced the expected incidence of autism in mothers who already had one autistic child from 20% to 5%. Vitamin D is safe; for example, over the last 15 years, Poison Control reports there have been approximately 15,000 cases of vitamin D overdose. However only three of these 15,000 people developed clinical toxicity and no one died.
Given those facts, practitioners might consider treating autism with 300 IU/kg/day,
and seek to prevent autism by supplementing pregnant and lactating women (5000 IU/day)
and infants and young children (150 IU/kg/day) checking 25(OH)D levels every 3 months.
These doses will increase 25(OH)D blood levels to those recommended by the Endocrine Society. As the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vitamin D supplementation during infancy and childhood, pediatricians and family practitioners should evaluate the current evidence on autism and vitamin D and act accordingly.
- Autism associated with low vitamin D during pregnancy – Nov 2016
- Autism in children reduced by Vitamin D (used 300 IU per kg per day) – RCT Oct 2016
- Autism and Vitamin D massive review – latitude, season, migration, VitD levels and intervention – April 2016
- Autism 17 times more likely with excessive Folic Acid and B-12 (now added to bread) – May 2016
- Autism rate in siblings reduced 4X by vitamin D: 5,000 IU during pregnancy, 1,000 IU to infants – Feb 2016
Autism treated by Vitamin D: Dr. Cannell - video June 2013 includes many reasons why he believes Autism is related to Vitamin D
- Both have strong inheritance features – Vitamin D about 60%
- Both have gotten substantially worse in last 30 years
- Vitamin D is known to be involved in brain development
- All autistic children are VitD deficient, but not all children who are deficient are autistic: genes are involved
- When giving vitamin D to cure children of rickets “mental dullness” decreases as well
- Children with genes which give them too much (Williams Syndrome) have to reverse of autism – too sociable
- Mothers having lots of fish (and thus more vitamin D) give birth to kids with less autistic symptoms
- Both associated with weak bones
- Both worse around the age of weaning
- Autism is more common in rich families – more likely to apply sun screen and stay indoors
- Autism increases with drugs which lower levels of vitamin D
- Seizures are common with Autism - Vitamin D has been shown to reduce seizures
- Fewer autistic symptoms (such as sleep problems) during summer: when child gets more vitamin D from the sun
- Both worse with latitude
- Both vary with Ultraviolet light
- Both vary with time of year (more birth of autistics in March in Northern hemisphere)
- 2X more urban autism – less UVB in urban environments
- Both worse with pollution
- Both worse with increased clouds and rain
- Both worse with closely spaced pregnancies
- Autistics have abnormal immune response – similar to that of vitamin D deficiency
- Low levels of vitamin D in mother animals reduces brain function in offspring
- Vitamin deficient rat pups have similar brain abnormalities to that of human autistic children
- Autistic children get less vitamin D in their blood for the same amount of sun exposure
- The 4 males/1 female ratio - Note estrogen increases vitamin D in the brain (testosterone does not)
- Both worse in African Americans (A-A 2-3 increased autism rate)
- Both worse in Dark-skinned immigrants in Europe
- Note: All articles in Autism category
- 1. Larocque R. Deaths at an early age in the city of Quebec, 17th-19th centuries. Can Bull Med Hist. 1999;16:341–61. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 2. Holick MF. Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2062–72. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 3. Thacher TD, Fischer PR, Tebben PJ, Singh RJ, Cha SS, Maxson JA, Yawn BP. Increasing incidence of nutritional rickets: a population-based study in Olmsted County. Minnesota Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(2):176–83. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 4. Bhat S, Acharya UR, Adeli H, Bairy GM, Adeli A. Autism: cause factors, early diagnosis and therapies. Rev Neurosci. 2014;25(6):841–50. doi:10.1515/revneuro-2014-0056. Review PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5. Cannell JJ. Autism and vitamin D. Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(4):750–9. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6. Cannell JJ. Autism, will vitamin D treat core symptoms? Med Hypotheses. 2013;81(2):195–8. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7. Williams JG, Higgins JP, Brayne CE. Systematic review of prevalence studies of autism spectrum disorders. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91(1):8–15. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8. Waldman M, Nicholson S, Adilov N. Does television cause autism? National Bureau of Economic Research Working Group. 12632. 2006. http://www.nber.org/papers/w12632. Accessed 1/19/2017. 9. Grant WB, Cannell JJ. Autism prevalence in the United States with respect to solar UV-B doses: an ecological study. Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(1):159–64. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 10. Windham GC, Zhang L, Gunier R, Croen LA, Grether JK. Autism spectrum disorders in relation to distribution of hazardous air pollutants in the San Francisco bay area. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(9):1438–44. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 11. Wai KM, Yu PK, Lam KS. Reduction of solar UV radiation due to urban high-rise buildings--a coupled Modelling study. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135562. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 12. Vieira SE. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:1111–21. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 13. Agarwal KS, Mughal MZ, Upadhyay P, Berry JL, Mawer EB, Puliyel JM. The impact of atmospheric pollution on vitamin D status of infants and toddlers in Delhi. India Arch Dis Child. 2002;87:111–3. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14. Kelishadi R, Moeini R, Poursafa P, Farajian S, Yousefy H, Okhovat-Souraki AA. Independent association between air pollutants and vitamin D deficiency in young children in Isfahan. Iran Paediatr Int Child Health. 2014;34(1):50–5. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15. Baïz N, Dargent-Molina P, Wark JD, Souberbielle JC, Slama R, Annesi-Maesano I. EDEN mother-child cohort study group. Gestational exposure to urban air pollution related to a decrease in cord blood vitamin d levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(11):4087–95. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 16. https://www.vitamindcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Sunlight-for-Babies.pdf. Accessed 1–21-2017. 17. Gies P, Makin J, Dobbinson S, Javorniczky J, Henderson S, Guilfoyle R, Lock J. Shade provision for toddlers at swimming pools in Melbourne. Photochem Photobiol. 2013;89(4):968–73. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18. Walker RB, Conn JA, Davies MJ, et al. Mothers’ views on feeding infants around the time of weaning. Public Health Nutr. 2006;9(6):707–13. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19. Szachta P, Skonieczna-Żydecka K, Adler G, Karakua-Juchnowicz H, Madlani H, Ignyś I. Immune related factors in pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20(14):3060–72. PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20. Liu L, Zhang D, Rodzinka-Pasko JK, Li YM. Environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders. Nervenarzt. 2016. Review.
- 21. Risch N, Hoffmann TJ, Anderson M, Croen LA, Grether JK, Windham GC. Familial recurrence of autism spectrum disorder: evaluating genetic and environmental contributions. Am J Psychiatry. 2014;171(11):1206-13. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13101359.
- 22. Zhang C, Qiu C, Hu FB, David RM, van Dam RM, Bralley A, Williams MA. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. PLoS One. 2008;3(11):e3753. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 23. Nahum Sacks K, Friger M, Shoham-Vardi I, Abokaf H, Spiegel E, Sergienko R, Landau D, Sheiner E. Prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus as an independent risk factor for long-term neuropsychiatric morbidity of the offspring. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215(3):380.e1–7.
- 24. Curran EA, O'Neill SM, Cryan JF, Kenny LC, Dinan TG, Khashan AS, Kearney PM. Research review: birth by caesarean section and development of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015;56(5):500–8. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25. Merewood A, Mehta SD, Chen TC, Bauchner H, Holick MF. Association between vitamin D deficiency and primary cesarean section. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(3):940–5. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26. Frye RE, Rossignol DA. Identification and treatment of pathophysiological comorbidities of autism Spectrum disorder to achieve optimal outcomes. Clin Med Insights Pediatr. 2016;10:43–56. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27. Holló A, Clemens Z, Lakatos P. Epilepsy and vitamin D. Int J Neurosci. 2014;124(6):387–93. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28. Abbasnezhad A, Amani R, Hajiani E, Alavinejad P, Cheraghian B, Ghadiri A. Effect of vitamin D on gastrointestinal symptoms and health-related quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;28(10):1533–44. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29. Garabe’dian M, Jacqz E, Guillozo H, et al. Elevated plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in infants with hypercalcemia and an elfin facies. N Engl J Med 1985;312(15):948–952. *30. Knudtzon J, Aksnes L, Akslen LA, Aarskog D. Elevated 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D and normocalcaemia in presumed familial Williams syndrome. Clin Genet. 1987;32(6):369–74. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31. Ng R, Järvinen A, Bellugi U. Toward a deeper characterization of the social phenotype of Williams syndrome: the association between personality and social drive. Res Dev Disabil. 2014;35(8):1838–49. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 32. Holick MF. High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81:353–73. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007;357(3):266–281. Review. 34. Fishman MP, Lombardo SJ, Kharrazi FD. Vitamin D deficiency among professional basketball players. Orthop J Sports Med. 2016;4(7):2325967116655742. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 35. Mazahery H, Camargo Jr CA, Conlon C, Beck KL, Kruger MC, von Hurst PR. Vitamin D and autism Spectrum disorder: a literature review. Nutrients. 2016;8(4):236. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 36. Hallerhan MM. The effect of rickets on the mental development of young children. Arch Psychol. 1938;229:1–67. Google Scholar
- 37. Gilmour A. The mental condition in rickets. School Hygiene. 1912;9:6–16. Google Scholar
- 38. Cannell JJ. On the aetiology of autism. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99(8):1128–30. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 39. Zaky EA, et al. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Vitamin D Deficient or Insufficient Rickets IJSR. 2015;4:6. Google Scholar
- 40. Chaste P, Leboyer M. Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2012;14(3):281–92. Review PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 41. Koch CA, Diamanti-Kandarakis E. Introduction to endocrine disrupting chemicals--is it time to act? Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2015;16(4):269–70. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42. Fujiwara T, Morisaki N, Honda Y, Sampei M, Tani Y. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism Spectrum disorder: a mini-review. Front Neurosci. 2016;10:174. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 43. Surén P, Gunnes N, Roth C, Bresnahan M, Hornig M, Hirtz D, Lie KK, Lipkin WI, Magnus P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Schjølberg S, Susser E, Oyen AS, Smith GD, Stoltenberg C. Parental obesity and risk of autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2014;133(5):e1128–38. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 44. Pereira-Santos M, Costa PR, Assis AM, Santos CA, Santos DB. Obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pereira-Santos M, costa PR, Assis AM, Santos CA, Santos DB. Obes Rev. 2015;16(4):341–9. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 45. Patrick L. Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: part 1: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. Altern Med Rev. 2002;7(6):456–71. Review PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 46. Dawodu A, Wagner CL. Prevention of vitamin D deficiency in mothers and infants worldwide - a paradigm shift. Paediatr Int Child Health. 2012;32(1):3–13. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 47. Dawodu A, Zalla L, Woo JG, Herbers PM, Davidson BS, Heubi JE, Morrow AL. Heightened attention to supplementation is needed to improve the vitamin D status of breastfeeding mothers and infants when sunshine exposure is restricted. Matern Child Nutr. 2014;10(3):383–97. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 48. Vieth R. What is the optimal vitamin D status for health? Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2006;92:26–32. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 49. http://www.strategyr.com/MarketResearch/Sun_Care_Products_Market_Trends.asp. Accessed 1/23/2017
- 50. Council on Scientific Affairs. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. JAMA. 1989;262:380–384.
- 51. Hall HI, Jorgensen CM, McDavid K, Kraft JM, Breslow R. Protection from sun exposure in US white children ages 6 months to 11 years. Public Health Rep. 2001;116(4):353–61. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 52. Ali A, Cui X, Eyles D. Developmental vitamin D deficiency and autism: putative pathogenic mechanisms. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb. 2016.12.018.
- 53. DeLuca GC, Kimball SM, Kolasinski J, et al. Review: the role of vitamin D in nervous system health and disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2013;39(5):458–84. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 54. Cannell JJ, Grant WB. What is the role of vitamin D in autism? Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(1):199–204. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 55. Huang YN, Ho YJ, Lai CC, Chiu CT, Wang JY. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 attenuates endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting MAPK activation in primary cortical neuron-glia cultures. J Neuroinflammation. 2015;12:147. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 56. Kočovská E, Fernell E, Billstedt E, et al. Vitamin D and autism: clinical review. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33(5):1541–50. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 57. Patrick RP, Ames BN. Vitamin D Hormone regulates serotonin synthesis. Part 1: relevance for autism. FASEB J 2014;28(6):2398–2413.
- 58. Smaga I, Niedzielska E, Gawlik M, Moniczewski A, Krzek J, Przegaliński E, Pera J, Filip M. Oxidative stress as an etiological factor and a potential treatment target of psychiatric disorders. Part 2. Depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and autism. Pharmacol Rep. 2015;67(3):569–80. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 59. Cortelazzo A, De Felice C, Guerranti R, Signorini C, Leoncini S, Zollo G, et al. Expression and oxidative modifications of plasma proteins in autism spectrum disorders: interplay between inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2016;10(11):1103-1112. doi:10.1002/prca.201500076.
- 60. Gatti D, Idolazzi L, Fassio A. Vitamin D: not just bone, but also immunity. Minerva Med. 2016;107(6):452-460.
- 61. Bakdash G, van Capel TM, Mason LM, et al. Vitamin D3 metabolite calcidiol primes human dendritic cells to promote the development of immunomodulatory IL-10-producing T cells. Vaccine. 2014;32(47):6294–302. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 62. Arnson Y, Itzhaky D, Mosseri M, Barak V, Tzur B, Agmon-Levin N, Amital H. Vitamin D inflammatory cytokines and coronary events: a comprehensive review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;45(2):236–47. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 63. Krakowiak P, Goines PE, Tancredi DJ. Ashwood P. Hertz-Picciotto I, et al. Neonatal cytokine profiles associated with autism spectrum disorder. Biol Psychiatry: Hansen RL; 2015. Google Scholar
- 64. Wrzosek M, Łukaszkiewicz J, Wrzosek M, Jakubczyk A, Matsumoto H, Piątkiewicz P, Radziwoń-Zaleska M, Wojnar M, Nowicka G. Vitamin D and the central nervous system. Pharmacol Rep. 2013;65(2):271–8. Review CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 65. Zhang Q, Cheng Y, He M, Li T, Ma Z, Cheng H. Effect of various doses of vitamin D supplementation on pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Exp Ther Med. 2016;12(3):1889–95. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 66. Srivastava DP. Two-step wiring plasticity--a mechanism for estrogen-induced rewiring of cortical circuits. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;131(1–2):17–23. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 67. Höfer P, Lanzenberger R, Kasper S. Testosterone in the brain: neuroimaging findings and the potential role for neuropsychopharmacology. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;23(2):79–88. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 68. Payne JD, Nadel L. Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: the role of the stress hormone cortisol. Learn Mem. 2004;11(6):671–8. Review CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 69. Kesby JP, Eyles DW, Burne TH, McGrath JJ. The effects of vitamin D on brain development and adult brain function. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;347(1–2):121–7. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 70. Shailesh H, Gupta I, Sif S, Ouhtit A. Towards understanding the genetics of Autism. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2016;8:412–26.
- 71. Wang T, Shan L, Du L, Feng J, Xu Z, Staal WG, Jia F. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016;25(4):341–50. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 72. Coşkun S, Şimşek Ş, Camkurt MA, Çim A, Çelik SB. Association of polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in children with autism spectrum disorder. Gene. 2016;588(2):109–14. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 73. Schmidt RJ, Hansen RL, Hartiala J, Allayee H, Sconberg JL, Schmidt LC, Volk HE, Tassone F. Selected vitamin D metabolic gene variants and risk for autism spectrum disorder in the CHARGE study. Early Hum Dev. 2015;91(8):483–9. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 74. Nissen J, Rasmussen LB, Ravn-Haren G, Andersen EW, Hansen B, Andersen R, Mejborn H, Madsen KH, Vogel U. Common variants in CYP2R1 and GC genes predict vitamin D concentrations in healthy Danish children and adults. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89907. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 75. Fernell E, Bejerot S, Westerlund J, Miniscalco C, Simila H, Eyles D, Gillberg C, Humble MB. Autism spectrum disorder and low vitamin D at birth: a sibling control study. Mol Autism. 2015;6:3. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 76. Magnusson C, Lundberg M, Lee BK, Rai D, Karlsson H, Gardner R, Kosidou K, Arver S, Dalman C. Maternal vitamin D deficiency and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: population-based study. BJPsych Open. 2016;2(2):170–2. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 77. Vinkhuyzen AA, Eyles DW, Burne TH, Blanken LM, Kruithof CJ, Verhulst F, et al. Gestational vitamin D deficiency and autism-related traits: the Generation R Study. Mol Psychiatry. 2016. doi:10.1038/mp. 2016.213.
- 78. Chen J, Xin K, Wei J, Zhang K, Xiao H. Lower maternal serum 25(OH) D in first trimester associated with higher autism risk in Chinese offspring. J Psychosom Res. 2016;89:98–101. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 79. Karohl C, Su S, Kumari M, Tangpricha V, Veledar E, Vaccarino V, Raggi P. Heritability and seasonal variability of vitamin D concentrations in male twins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(6):1393–8. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 80. Fan X, Warner M, Gustafsson JA. Estrogen receptor beta expression in the embryonic brain regulates development of calretinin-immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19338–43. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 81. Baksi SN, Kenny AD. Estradiol-induced stimulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-hydroxylase in vitamin D-deficient Japanese quail. Pharmacology. 1980;20(6):298–303. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 82. Harmon QE, Umbach DM, Baird DD. Use of estrogen-containing contraception is associated with increased concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(9):3370–7. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 83. Olmos-Ortiz A, García-Quiroz J, López-Marure R, González-Curiel I, Rivas-Santiago B, Olivares A, Avila E, Barrera D, Halhali A, Caldiño F, Larrea F, Díaz L. Evidence of sexual dimorphism in placental vitamin D metabolism: testosterone inhibits calcitriol-dependent cathelicidin expression. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;163:173–82. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 84. Alfawaz HA, Bhat RS, Al-Ayadhi L, et al. Protective and restorative potency of vitamin D on persistent biochemical autistic features induced in propionic acid-intoxicated rat pups. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:416. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 85. Jia F, Wang B, Shan L, Xu Z, Staal WG, Du L. core Symptoms of autism improved after vitamin D supplementation. Pediatrics 2015;135(1):e196–e198.
- 86. Saad K, Abdel-Rahman AA, Elserogy YM, et al. Vitamin D status in autism spectrum disorders and the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in autistic children. Nutr Neurosci. 2015;19(8):346-351.
- 87. Feng J, Shan L, Du L. et al. Clinical improvement following vitamin D3 supplementation in autism Spectrum disorder. Nutr Neurosci. 2016. doi:10.1080/1028415X.2015.1123847.
- 88. İbili Ucuz II İ, Dursun OB, Esin IS, et al. The relationship between vitamin D, autistic spectrum disorders, and cognitive development: do glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor play a role in this relationship? Int J Dev Disab. 2015;61(4):222–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 89. Saad K, Abdel-Rahman AA, Elserogy YM. Al-Atram AA. Othman HA, et al. Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry: El-Houfey AA. 2016. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12652.
- 90. Stubbs G, Henley K, Green J. Autism: will vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood reduce the recurrence rate of autism in newborn siblings? Med Hypotheses. 2016;88:74–8. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 91. Hollis BW, Wagner CL. Vitamin D requirements during lactation: high-dose maternal supplementation as therapy to prevent hypovitaminosis D for both the mother and the nursing infant. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(6 Suppl):1752S–8S. PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 92. Við Streym S, Højskov CS, Møller UK, Heickendorff L, Vestergaard P, Mosekilde L, Rejnmark L. Vitamin D content in human breast milk: a 9-mo follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;103(1):107–114.
- 93. Looker AC, Pfeiffer CM, Lacher DA, Schleicher RL, Picciano MF, Yetley EA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988-1994 compared with 2000-2004. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(6):1519–27. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 94. Lebbé C, Robert C, Ricard S, Sassolas B, Grange F, Saiag P, Lhomel C, Mortier L. Evolution of sun-protection measures for children. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015;29(Suppl 2):20–2. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 95. Holick MF. Photosynthesis of vitamin D in the skin: effect of environmental and life-style variables. Fed Proc. 1987;46:1876–82. PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 96. Ekwaru JP, Zwicker JD, Holick MF, Giovannucci E, Veugelers PJ. The importance of body weight for the dose response relationship of oral vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in healthy volunteers. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111265. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 97. Wagner CL, McNeil RB, Johnson DD, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Robinson C, Hamilton SA, Hollis BW. Health characteristics and outcomes of two randomized vitamin D supplementation trials during pregnancy: a combined analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:313–20. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 98. Wagner CL, McNeil R, Hamilton SA, Winkler J, Rodriguez Cook C, Warner G, Bivens B, Davis DJ, Smith PG, Murphy M, Shary JR, Hollis BW. A randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation in 2 community health center networks in South Carolina. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;208(2):137.e1–13.
- 99. Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Wagner CL. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(10):2341–57. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 100. Luxwolda MF, Kuipers RS, Kema IP, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Muskiet FA. Traditionally living populations in East Africa have a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 115 nmol/l. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(9):1557–61. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 101. Hollis BW, Wagner CL, Howard CR, Ebeling M, Shary JR, Smith PG, Taylor SN, Morella K, Lawrence RA, Hulsey TC. Maternal versus infant vitamin D supplementation during lactation: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2015;136(4):625–34. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 102. Briefel R, Hanson C, Fox MK, et al. Feeding infants and toddlers study: do vitamin and mineral supplements contribute to nutrient adequacy or excess among US infants and toddlers? J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106(1 Suppl. 1):S52–65.
- 103. Perrine CG, Sharma AJ, Jefferds ME, et al. Adherence to vitamin D recommendations among US infants. Pediatrics. 2010;125(4):627–32. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Short URL = https://is.gd/AutismVitD17Vitamin D and autism - treat: 300 IU per kg per day, prevent: during pregnancy 5,000 IU – Feb 2017
4572 visitors, last modified 02 Jul, 2018,