Effects of Maternal Vitamin D Supplementation on the Maternal and Infant Epigenome.
Breastfeed Med. 2018 May 21. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2017.0231. [Epub ahead of print]
Anderson CM1, Gillespie SL1, Thiele DK2, Ralph JL2,3, Ohm JE4.
- This study used 3,800 IU daily starting at late 2nd trimester and continued through a month of breastfeeding
- Studies starting Vitamin D supplementation in early 2nd trimester with 70% more Vitamin D (6,400 IU) have found many infant benefits
- Many studies have suggested that Vitamin D levels should be optimized in early 1st trimester
- VitaminDWiki suspects > 1,000 gene changes if vitamin D levels are raised by day 20 instead of day 200
- Pregnant women need at least 40 ng of Vitamin D (Wagner, genes) – Oct 2017
- Vitamin D genes and pregnancy – 7th study - Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia 3.5 times more likely if low vitamin D (affects 348 Vit. D genes) – RCT Nov 2016
- Low vitamin D in mother rat altered 426 genes in newborn rat – Aug 2013
- Which is very similar to the results of study on this page
- Multiple Sclerosis more likely if poor vitamin D genes - 22nd study – Aug 2017
- 291 genes improved expression by 2000 IU of vitamin D – RCT March 2013
- only 2 months of 2,000 IU daily, not during pregnancy
- 54 genes significantly affected by Vitamin D (50,000 IU weekly for 12 weeks) – May 2021
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Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summaryProblem
Reduces Evidence 0. Chance of not conceiving 3.4 times Observe 1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe 2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 times RCT 3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT 4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe 5. Premature birth 2 times RCT 6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 times Observe Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 times RCT - Omega-3 7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT 8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis 9. Infant height, weight, head size
within normal limits
RCT 10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT 11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention 12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 times Observe 13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 times RCT 14. Good motor skills @ age 3 1.4 times Observe 15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT 16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
Mothers and infants are at high risk for inadequate vitamin D status. Mechanisms by which vitamin D may affect maternal and infant DNA methylation are poorly understood.
This study quantified the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on DNA methylation in pregnant and lactating women and their breastfed infants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In this randomized controlled pilot study, pregnant women received vitamin D3 400 international units (IU) (n = 6; control) or 3,800 IU (n = 7; intervention) daily from late second trimester through 4-6 weeks postpartum. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in leukocytes collected from mothers at birth and mother-infant dyads at 4-6 weeks postpartum.
At birth, intervention group mothers showed DNA methylation gain and loss at 76 and 89 cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides, respectively, compared to controls. Postpartum, methylation gain was noted at 200 and loss at 102 CpGs. Associated gene clusters showed strongest biologic relevance for cell migration/motility and cellular membrane function at birth and cadherin signaling and immune function at postpartum. Breastfed 4-6-week-old infants of intervention mothers showed DNA methylation gain and loss in 217 and 213 CpGs, respectively, compared to controls. Genes showing differential methylation mapped most strongly to collagen metabolic processes and regulation of apoptosis.
Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation alters DNA methylation in mothers and breastfed infants. Additional work is needed to fully elucidate the short- and long-term biologic effects of vitamin D supplementation at varying doses, which could hold important implications for establishing clinical recommendations for prenatal and offspring health promotion.
PMID: 29782187 DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2017.0231430 genes changed when 3,800 IU Vitamin D added in late second trimester – RCT May 2018
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