J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016 Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print] 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000580
Boerman R1, Cohen D, Schulte PF, Nugter A.
1From the *Department of Severe Mental Illnesses, Mental Health Care Organisation Noord-Holland-Noord, Alkmaar; †Department of Severe Mental Illnesses, Mental Health Care Organisation Noord-Holland-Noord, Heerhugowaard; ‡Centre for Bipolar Disorders, Mental Health Care Organisation Noord-Holland-Noord, Alkmaar; and §Department of Research & Monitoring, Mental Health Care Organisation Noord-Holland-Noord, Heerhugowaard, The Netherlands.
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Overview Schizophrenia and Vitamin D contains the following summary
14 reasons to think that schizophrenia is associated with low vitamin D
1) 97% of patients with schizophrenia are vitamin D deficient
2) Schizophrenia varies with latitude (UVB) by 10X (controversy)
3) Schizophrenia is more common in those with dark skin (when away from the equator)
4) Schizophrenia is associated with low natal vitamin D
5) Schizophrenia has been increasing around the world when vitamin D has been decreasing (controversy)
6) Schizophrenia is associated with low birth rate, which is associated with low vitamin D
7) Schizophrenia is associated with Autism which is associated with low vitamin D
8) Schizophrenia Bulletin Editorial (Jan 2014) speculated that Vitamin D could be a major player
9) Schizophrenia 2X more likely if low vitamin D - meta-analysis
10) Schizophrenia increased 40 % for Spring births after Danes stopped vitamin D fortification
11) Schizophrenia is associated with season of birth
12) Schizophrenia is associated with poor Vitamin D Receptor genes
13) Schizophrenia risk is decreased if give Vitamin D after birth
14) Schizophrenia symptoms reduced when Vitamin D levels are restored
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Placebo congtrolled trial. Light box in afternoon - getting up to 60 minutes
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Data from the PDF
Psychiatric disorder ≤12 ng 12-20 ng 20–30 ng >30 ng Bipolar 23% 31% 25% 20% Schizophrenia 35% 31% 22% 12% Schizoaffect disorder 34% 36% 23% 8%
Several studies show an association between schizophrenia and low levels of vitamin D. To date, there are only few studies about the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency is less common among patients with bipolar disorder than among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A second hypothesis is that vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorders than among the general Dutch population.Most studies have been conducted with hospitalized patients; in this study, we only included outpatients.
METHODS: All outpatients of a center for bipolar disorders and all outpatients of 3 flexible assertive community treatment teams were asked to participate in this cross-sectional study.
We included 118 patients with bipolar disorder and 202 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Vitamin D levels were deficient in 30.3% (95% confidence interval, 25.5-35.6) of the cases. The type of psychiatric disorder was not a predictor of vitamin D deficiency. The absolute difference in risk of deficiency between the study population and the Dutch Caucasian population was 23.8% (95% confidence interval, 18.3%-29.3%).
In this study, vitamin D deficiency was 4.7 times more common among outpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder than among the Dutch general population. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, we believe that outpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder should be considered at risk of having low levels of vitamin D. Annual measurement of vitamin D levels in psychiatric outpatients with these disorders seems to be justified to maintain bone health, muscle strength, and to prevent osteoporosis.
PDF is available free at Sci-Hub 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000580Vitamin D deficiency 4.7 times more likely in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder – Sept 2016
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