Korean J Intern Med. Jul 2014; 29(4): 416–427.
Published online Jun 27, 2014. doi: 10.3904/kjim.2014.29.4.416
Chang Seong Kim and Soo Wan Kim
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a significant global health problem because of the increased risk of total and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is common in patients with CKD, and serum levels of vitamin D appear to have an inverse correlation with kidney function. Growing evidence has indicated that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to deteriorating renal function, as well as increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Recent studies have suggested that treatment with active vitamin D or its analogues can ameliorate renal injury by reducing fibrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation in animal models; this treatment also decreases proteinuria and mortality in patients with CKD. These renoprotective effects of vitamin D treatment are far beyond its classical role in the maintenance of bone and mineral metabolism, in addition to its pleiotropic effects on extra-mineral metabolism. In this review, we discuss the altered metabolism of vitamin D in kidney disease, and the potential renoprotective mechanisms of vitamin D in experimental and clinical studies. In addition, issues regarding the effects of vitamin D treatment on clinical outcomes are discussed.
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Note: GFR = Glomerular Filtration Rate
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Concludes that there is little evidence that vitamin D helps CKD. Summary table does not indicate how much was used, nor type