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COVID is also associated with low Vitamin K - many studies

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Reduced Vitamin K Status as a Potentially Modifiable Risk Factor of Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 - Aug 2020

Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa1258, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1258
Anton S M Dofferhoff, Ianthe Piscaer, Leon J Schurgers, Margot P J Visser, Jody M W van den Ouweland, Pim A de Jong, Reinoud Gosens, Tilman M Hackeng, Henny van Daal, Petra Lux ..

Respiratory failure and thromboembolism are frequent in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2–infected patients. Vitamin K activates both hepatic coagulation factors and extrahepatic endothelial anticoagulant protein S, required for thrombosis prevention. In times of vitamin K insufficiency, hepatic procoagulant factors are preferentially activated over extrahepatic proteins. Vitamin K also activates matrix Gla protein (MGP), which protects against pulmonary and vascular elastic fiber damage. We hypothesized that vitamin K may be implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), linking pulmonary and thromboembolic disease.

A total of 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were compared with 184 historic controls. Inactive vitamin K–dependent MGP (desphospho-uncarboxylated dp-uc MGP) and prothrombin (PIVKA-II) were measured inversely related to extrahepatic and hepatic vitamin K status, respectively. Desmosine was measured to quantify the rate of elastic fiber degradation. Arterial calcification severity was assessed using computed tomography.

dp-ucMGP was elevated in COVID-19 patients compared with controls (P < .001), with even higher dp-ucMGP in patients with poor outcomes (P < .001). PIVKA-II was normal in 82.1% of patients. dp-ucMGP was correlated with desmosine (P < .001) and with coronary artery (P = .002) and thoracic aortic (P < .001) calcification scores.

dp-ucMGP was severely increased in COVID-19 patients, indicating extrahepatic vitamin K insufficiency, which was related to poor outcome; hepatic procoagulant factor II remained unaffected. These data suggest pneumonia-induced extrahepatic vitamin K depletion leading to accelerated elastic fiber damage and thrombosis in severe COVID-19 due to impaired activation of MGP and endothelial protein S, respectively.
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