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COVID associated with less Vitamin K2-7 - many studies

Dramatic Decrease of Vitamin K2 Subtype Menaquinone-7 in COVID-19 Patients - June 2022

Antioxidants 2022, 11(7), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11071235
by Harald Mangge 1,*ORCID,Florian Prueller 1ORCID,Christine Dawczynski 2ORCID,Pero Curcic 1,Zdenka Sloup

(1) Background: Vitamin K (VK) is a fat-soluble compound with a common chemical structure, a 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone ring, and a variable aliphatic side-chain. VK is involved in the synthesis of blood-clotting proteins, bone stability, anti-oxidative, and immune inflammatory-modulatory functions. Vitamin K also activates protein S, which acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The fact that cytokine overproduction, oxidative stress, and disturbed microcirculation by thrombogenicity play a central role in severe COVID-19 prompted us to analyze this vitamin.

(2) Methods: We analyzed by a validated liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method serum vitamin K1, MK4, MK7, and VK epoxide levels in 104 healthy controls, 77 patients with non-COVID-19 pneumonia, and 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with potentially fatal outcomes admitted to our University Hospital between April and November 2020. We included the quotient between VK and triglyceride (TG, nmol/mmol/L) values in the analyses with respect to the TG transporter function for all VK subtypes. Additionally, we assessed anthropometric, routine laboratory, and clinical data from the laboratory and hospital information systems.

(3) Results: The COVID-19 patients had significantly lower MK7 levels than non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients and healthy controls. COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients had significantly lower vitamin K1 and significantly higher MK4 compared to healthy controls, but did not differ significantly from each other. Between COVID-19 non-survivors (n = 30) and survivors (n = 105) no significant differences were seen in all vitamin K subtypes, despite the fact that non-survivors had higher peak concentrations of IL-6, CRP, d-dimer, and higher oxygen needs, respectively.

(4) Conclusions: The present data identified significantly decreased vitamin K1, K2 (MK7), and increased MK4 levels in patients with COVID-19 compared to healthy controls. Vitamin K2 (MK7) was lowest in COVID-19 patients irrespective of potentially fatal courses, indicating consumption of this VK subtype by COVID-19 immanent effects, most probably inflammatory and oxidative stress factors.
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VitaminDWiki - 8 studies in both categories Virus and Vitamin K

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ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
20440 MK7 COVID.png admin 05 Dec, 2023 19.41 Kb 63
20439 K2-7 COVID_CompressPdf.pdf admin 05 Dec, 2023 204.68 Kb 19