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Alzheimer’s Is Now Optional - Dr. Bredesen video and transcript Sept 2023

Alzheimer’s Is Now Optional: Here’s Why And How - Dale Bredesen, M.D.

YouTube 114 minutes

“Our generation can be the last generation to fear Alzheimer’s” — Dr Dale Bredesen

Quote from the Oct 2023 video: Memories for Life: Reversing Alzheimer's

VitaminDWiki – Overview Alzheimer's-Cognition and Vitamin D contains:

VitaminDWiki – Reasons why Omega-3 may not always help Alzheimer’s contains:

  1. Quality of the Omega-3
       contaminants as well as the source - fish liver, salmon brain, krill, and plant
  2. Dose size used (200 mg is unlikely to be as good as 2000 mg)
  3. Larger dose size needed for a heavier person
       Omega-3 index would determine that
  4. Larger dose size needed if much of the Omega-3 is fighting other inflammation
       Omega-3 index would determine that
  5. The Omega-6 in the body can block the benefits of Omega-3
       Omega-3 index would determine that
  6. Genes - Alzheimers APoE4 gene limits DHA
       additional genes may limit Omega-3, Magnesium, and Vitamin D
  7. Fraction of Omega-3 EPA and DHA
  8. The Omega-3 Index is a proven measure of Omega-3 for the blood - but is rarely used in trials
       Suspect that Omega-3 benefit is only seen in those who were previously deficient
       Wonder if the Omega-3 index is a good proxy measure for Omega-3 in the brain
  9. Omega-3 might be less bio-available in those with poor guts/gallbladder surgery
       Omega-3 index would determine that
  10. Omega-3 might not help all three forms of Alzheimer's
    See book End of Alzheimer's - Bredesen

VitaminDWiki - Vitamin D Receptor activation can be increased in 14 ways

Resveratrol,  Omega-3,  MagnesiumZinc,   Quercetin,   non-daily Vit D,  Curcumin, intense exercise, Butyrate   Ginger,   Essential oils, etc  Note: The founder of VitaminDWiki uses 10 of the 14 known VDR activators

VitaminDWiki - Dementia is associated with low vitamin D - 60+ studies

VitaminDWiki - The End of Alzheimer's and Dementia if adjust Vitamin D, B-12, Iron, Omega-3, etc. (Bredesen)


00:00:02 Dr. Bredesen
Thanks. Thank you, Michael. Let me share the slides here and go through. This is actually a very exciting time. I've spent my career being told that there's nothing you can do about neurodegenerative disease. Nothing you can do about Alzheimer's, nothing you can do about Lewy body disease, frontotemporal dementia, ALS, macular degeneration is go on and on.
00:00:21 Dr. Bredesen
And on and so we've been very excited after 30 years in the lab, we have a trial that was very successful that I'll show you today that has actually done far better than any of the drug trials or patients with cognitive decline. So I want to show you that now we can really say that Alzheimer's is finally optional if you get on active prevention.
00:00:41 Dr. Bredesen
Or earliest treatment. Then you do not need to go on to dementia. And unfortunately so many of us people, you know, wait, wait, wait. And that's been the the big problem.
00:00:53 Dr. Bredesen
So let me just start by saying this is a part of a bigger thing and I think the people here really recognize this better than just about anyone because mainstream medicine has had a big problem. When I was trained way back in the 1970s and 1980s in mainstream medicine, you know, we write prescription. So either you send someone to surgery or you write a prescription.
00:01:14 Dr. Bredesen
And that's basically what you have to offer and that's great for very simple diseases, pneumococcal pneumonia, you can do very well with the prescription for amoxicillin or for penicillin, all sorts of other you know, cephalosporins, et cetera. But what's happened since then.
00:01:31 Dr. Bredesen
Is that we have done very well with these simple infectious illnesses, even things as difficult as HIV and even fairly well with COVID-19. But unfortunately, now virtually all of us are dying of complex chronic illnesses, cancer, heart disease, chronic renal failure.
00:01:51 Dr. Bredesen
Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. These are fundamentally different than the simple diseases.
00:01:58 Dr. Bredesen
They don't respond to a simple prescription pad. one-size-fits-all. So what's happened is we're all watching the problems with mainstream medicine. So the Titanic that is mainstream medicine has rammed into the iceberg of chronic illness, and we're all watching it sink into the frigid waters of failure.
00:02:19 Dr. Bredesen
No amount of pharmaceutical duct tape is going to save it,
00:02:22 Dr. Bredesen
00:02:23 Dr. Bredesen
Been the big problem and This is why such tremendous work from people like Doctor Furman and and people like like Doctor Jeffrey Bland and Doctor David Perlmutter and Doctor Mark ***** and Steven Gundry and Sarah Gottfried and on and on.
00:02:38 Dr. Bredesen
Have really pointed out the a way to a better way to do this, and interestingly we came from the laboratory side of things looking at the test tube models of Alzheimer's for 30 years. The surprise was we ended up finding out if you just follow the science, you end up at the same place.
00:02:59 Dr. Bredesen
You find that in fact you have to look at these as complex chronic illnesses, and you need to address fundamental physiological processes. It's not just about writing a a simple prescription which is not to say that the the prescriptions won't be helpful in the long run.
00:03:15 Dr. Bredesen
But as part of an overall precision medicine personalized protocol, and I'll show you that today.
00:03:23 Dr. Bredesen
So we really are dealing with a pandemic without a vaccine. That's the big problem here. And so if we look at what's going on with Alzheimer's disease, you've got whoops, there we go.
00:03:39 Dr. Bredesen
That's interesting. OK, so it won't allow me to hit the next slide.
All right. There we go. OK. So for perspective, COVID-19 has killed over a million Americans, but Alzheimer's will lead to the death in nearly 40 times that many. So this is the big problem that this is really dwarfing the pandemic, about 45 million Americans will die of the.
00:04:05 Dr. Bredesen
Currently living Americans will die of Alzheimer's disease and to make matters worse, in fact, having had COVID-19 increases your risk, and now that's been published.
00:04:15 Dr. Bredesen
And and shown very clearly. Unfortunately, because there are some of the similar immunologic activation sorts of pathways.
00:04:26 Dr. Bredesen
So the problem here is whereas COVID-19 is a simple disease, as I mentioned earlier, we do quite well with these simple diseases where we can just target one thing. Alzheimer's is a complex disease of unknown etiology, and we'll talk about today. That's been the big problem. People argue about what Alzheimer's disease actually is. It's not just a simple one organ.
00:04:48 Dr. Bredesen
So we need to understand the fundamental nature of Alzheimer's. We need a model that's consistent with the greater than 150,000 papers that have been published so far, and we'll actually predict therapeutic failure. So we really have a sad state of affairs. And, you know, why is that so? First of all, what's happened if you go in today?
00:05:08 Dr. Bredesen
And you say hey.
You know, I've got some problems with my memory or some problems with my thinking. Some problems with recognizing faces, problems with doing calculation, figuring out a tip, for example, paying my bills, things like that. The doctor may say, you know, listen, why don't you just wait? Because it's probably not Alzheimer's. If you really have.
00:05:30 Dr. Bredesen
Problems if things get really bad and then come back and we'll give you a medicine that doesn't work and you're going to die. It's a horrible, horrible state of affairs. Of course we want to get on active prevention. Of course, we want to go in.
00:05:43 Dr. Bredesen
Early and as with all chronic illnesses, you want to start on treatment, either prevention or earliest treatment. Second problem is when the doctor does evaluate you, he or she will get a very small data sets. Look at a few things like your like, TSH B12.
00:06:00 Dr. Bredesen
And not too many more things and not really look at what's driving the problem, which is so critical. And then this other thing is, you know, adherence to this outdated claim, there's nothing that will prevent reverse or delay Alzheimer's. You can actually see that on website.
00:06:15 Dr. Bredesen
And this has been the claim for years and years and years. And of course now, with published data shows very clearly that that is no longer the case. And then, of course, when people do advance and they go into a nursing home, nobody says, look, all the children should be evaluated extensively and go on an active prevention program.
00:06:35 Dr. Bredesen
You can literally stop the problem with the current generation if.
00:06:40 Dr. Bredesen
You will just do.

Average cost of Alzheimer’s $350,000 per patient

00:06:41 Dr. Bredesen
To do that and the statistics show, it's very sad. Patients spend an average of $350,000 and actually with.
00:06:50 Dr. Bredesen
With inflation, that's now actually significantly more than that, but the bottom line is a tremendous amount that is being spent before people die of Alzheimer's. And of course, a lot of this is from nursing homes and things like that. And we that leaves the patients and their families destitute frequently. So this is a horrible problem. And we can do far, far better.
00:07:11 Dr. Bredesen
And then the other thing is this insistence on treatment with mono Pharmaceuticals, OK, I'm just going to write you a.
00:07:16 Dr. Bredesen
Scription, or Aricept or Namenda, these things are are do not have efficacy. The ones like Aricept have a brief period where they help a little bit and that's been shown that the people who went on that actually five years later were doing overall worse than the ones.
00:07:33 Dr. Bredesen
Who didn't and?
00:07:34 Dr. Bredesen
Then of course, the antibodies and you've heard them, sure, recently.
00:07:37 Dr. Bredesen
About Dynamat and Locana amab as I'll show you, those do not make people better. They slow the decline a little bit.
00:07:46 Dr. Bredesen
With they have all sorts of side effects microhemorrhage in the brain. Few people have died from these things, so this is not an optimal approach. We need something that gives you sustained improvement in cognition as opposed to just slowing your decline a little little. So let me mention that one of the big problems is that people come in very late and there are really.
00:08:09 Dr. Bredesen
Four major phases of this disease or stages of the disease and people virtually always wait to come in till the last two instead of coming in in the 1st 2:00. And if they would just come in.
00:08:20 Dr. Bredesen
Earlier, there's so much that could be done so telling someone that they have mild cognitive impairment, which is the third of four stages, is like telling someone. Don't worry, you only have mildly metastatic cancer. It's a relatively late stage of the underlying pathophysiology. So you don't want to wait for that. So let's talk about the four phases.
00:08:41 Dr. Bredesen
Number one.
You're asymptomatic, so you know we all used to think of this as the disease of our sixties, 70s and 80s, but it's really a disease of our 30s, Forties, 50s and early 60s. It just gets diagnosed 20 years later from when it starts to when you get a diagnosis, is on average about 20 years. So you do go through an asymptomatic period. So many of us.
00:09:05 Dr. Bredesen
Whether you know, 40s, fifties, 60s or even 70s, many of us are in the early stages without even knowing it. Now you can show that with PET scans and spinal fluid, and now the good news is there are some new blood tests that we'll talk about in a few minutes.
00:09:19 Dr. Bredesen
People say, well, I'm afraid to get the blood test. What if I find out I'm in the early stages? No problem. You can get treated and do very, very well. So don't stick your head in the sand and wait for it to come during that time. As I mentioned, you will still have an abnormal spinal fluid and pet scan. You don't do anything during that time. You'll go on to phase two, which is subjective.
00:09:39 Dr. Bredesen
Cognitive impairment and.
00:09:41 Dr. Bredesen
By definition, this means you're still able to score.
00:09:44 Dr. Bredesen
Really on cognitive tests, but often you'll notice that there are some changes your spouse noted may notice. Some coworkers may notice. The important thing about Alzheimer’s is that on average it lasts 10 years. So you have a tremendous window of opportunity. We see virtually everybody who gets treated for STI returns to normal.
00:10:04 Dr. Bredesen
So please, if you have problems, don't wait.
00:10:06 Dr. Bredesen
As I said, by definition cognitive symptoms without abnormal testing. The third phase is mild cognitive impairment. So this again relatively late stage of the problem. By definition. Now it means that you are not doing as well on the cognitive testing, but you still have intact your activities of daily living. You can pay your bills.
You can drive your car, you can talk to people you can groom and things like that.
00:10:32 Dr. Bredesen
About 5 to 10% of people with MCI will convert to full on dementia each year, so again, please don't wait if you develop this, it's the final phase that is actually the dementia phase of Alzheimer's. During that time, your activities of daily living are affected, and so you may have trouble with paying bills or driving your car.
00:10:53 Dr. Bredesen
Or grooming or recognizing faces or things like that, or doing the things that you're doing each day toileting, showering things.
00:11:01 Dr. Bredesen
That the diagnosis, therefore, is typically made about 20 years after the initial changes. So we want to get people to come in earlier and earlier and show there is a tremendous amount you can do about it. So it really concerns me when people say, oh, there's nothing to be done that's absolutely incorrect and that's been published now repeatedly. So I want to say a little bit about the semantics, you know, what is called.
00:11:24 Dr. Bredesen
Success because we've all heard recently about the recent drug successes.
Here's what they mean.
When you develop MCI, that's the third stage or dementia, which is where these drugs have been tested and where also our clinical trial was tested. If you don't have any treatment then on average you lose about 3 1/2 points per year on a 30 year scale. So whether you talk about the.
MSC or the Mocha test for example.
00:11:52 Dr. Bredesen
You lose somewhere.
00:11:53 Dr. Bredesen
Around there, now some may lose a little less. I mean it lose a little more, but that's the average.
00:11:59 Dr. Bredesen
For the drug addict Kanab that was given.
00:12:02 Dr. Bredesen
That was given accelerated approval. Now, none of these has been given full approval yet by the FDA, but they've been given accelerated approval. So at a Kanab, you can see about 22% slowing of decline. That's all. It doesn't make people better, it doesn't stabilize them, it just slows their decline.
00:12:22 Dr. Bredesen
A little bit lacanau, amab was 27% and Dynamat was one Test 1 trial showed 32% slowing. One trial showed 36% slow. That's the one that just came out recently.
00:12:37 Dr. Bredesen
So these have a very, very modest effect. And as a comparison, what did better in terms of actually making people better, number one, extra virgin olive oil alone did better than these #2 ketones. Professor Stephen Cannane from Canada. Very nice data published data on ketones.
00:12:57 Dr. Bredesen
Loan showing improvement so that they did better with them. These drug third thing.
00:13:02 Dr. Bredesen
Combined metabolic activators. This was just published about two months ago and this was a couple of different things that, that, that increased metabolic activity and I'll show you why that's so important. And then finally, the best of all is the A protocol we developed which is called Recode, which is a precision medicine, personalized protocol. And as I'll show you.
00:13:22 Dr. Bredesen
It's based on what's actually causing.
00:13:24 Dr. Bredesen
And the disease, and therefore it's different for different people. You want to look at what's actually causing the problem and that actually made people better. And if you stay on it, it continues to, it continues to improve you. And in fact, we've had people now who have been on for over a decade who are still doing very, very well, who started way back in 2012, which is when the first patients.
00:13:46 Dr. Bredesen
Started this.
00:13:49 Dr. Bredesen
So I'm not sure of how many people have seen Alzheimer's brains before. You can see here the tremendous afterpay. So you get a shrinkage of the brain and therefore the spaces where the spinal fluid are actually shows. For example, the ventricles. You can see that they actually get bigger. And one point to note here is right here you can see this is a little region.
00:14:09 Dr. Bredesen
Within the pons that's in your brain stem and this area is actually called the locust cerulean, which basically means the area of blue.
00:14:20 Dr. Bredesen
And you can see the darkness here. And this is what actually goes first in Alzheimer's. And this is the area that sends out projections of norepinephrine. So it's like the adrenaline for your brain. One of the reasons why probably when you see people with Alzheimer's, they're often a little slow. They're often looking around for answers. They're they're slowed down.
00:14:41 Dr. Bredesen
So you lose very early on and you can see here if you look at the bottom here, you can actually see the. loss in that blueness and that.
00:14:48 Dr. Bredesen
Darkness of that particular region, the locust Serolis, and the ponds. And then of course, enteral cortex. This is area critical for memory. These are all beginning to degenerate. Then ultimately, much of the cerebral cortex.
00:15:05 Dr. Bredesen
And if you look at The pathology under the microscope.
00:15:09 Dr. Bredesen
First thing, of course, this is all related to synapse loss and that's the most important thing that's that's happening in Alzheimer's.
00:15:15 Dr. Bredesen
Disease you are.
00:15:15 Dr. Bredesen
Losing the connection.
00:15:17 Dr. Bredesen
You have about 500 trillion synapses in your brain, so you have a remarkable supercomputer inside your brain. These are beginning to be lost as you develop Alzheimer's disease, and in association with that, you see three things that are striking.
00:15:36 Dr. Bredesen
In the brain, the first thing is you see this accumulation right here of this is called amyloid. And this is largely related to a single peptide that we'll talk about and why that is important. But why? It's not the only thing that's that's driving Alzheimer's. And when it's been talked about as the cause of Alzheimer's, there's far, far more going on.
00:15:57 Dr. Bredesen
Than just amyloid. In Alzheimer's disease, the second thing you see here, these are called neurofibrillary tangles and what they look like is someone took a nice big neuron and shrank it down and filled it with this dark substance, which is exactly what happened. You have phosphotyrosine. We'll talk more about Phospho Tau in a few minutes and what you can do.
00:16:16 Dr. Bredesen
About it and the third thing here is that you see inflammation and it's especially activation of the innate immune system and especially the memory part of the innate immune system. And that's critical because when you have a response, normally what happens of course is you initially have inflammation.
00:16:37 Dr. Bredesen
You have activation of your innate immune system. That's the evolutionarily older part of your immune system and then literally it hands off to your adaptive system. So now you're coming up with your B cells and T cells. These are the ones that are more specific that are going.
00:16:53 Dr. Bredesen
To now root out.
00:16:54 Dr. Bredesen
The pathogen and get rid of it. And this actually then turns down the innate turns off the inflammation, clears the pathogen, and then you reset. The problem is COVID-19 and Alzheimer's actually have something in common in both of these cases, you activate the inflammatory part, but you don't get enough activation of the.
00:17:15 Dr. Bredesen
Innate part of of the adaptive part to clear the pathogen. So either because, for example, you're in ill health, as we know with COVID-19, so people then continue to have this activation of the innate system and what happens, they die from cytokine.
00:17:30 Dr. Bredesen
Storm in Alzheimer's, the same story. But instead of cytokine storm, it's cytokine drizzle. You have this chronic activation for decades of the innate immune system and your your adaptive system is failing to clear this either because you have had continued exposure to things. That's one common reason.
00:17:51 Dr. Bredesen
Or because you're in poor health overall or many other reasons that we'll talk about in just a few minutes. So this is the problem, and we need to address this as early as.
00:18:02 Dr. Bredesen
So as I said earlier, the key issue is what is it, what is Alzheimer's? This has been the problem trying to develop a drug to get rid of Alzheimer's without understanding what Alzheimer's actually is really makes no sense. But that's what's been going on for decades. There is no agreement. Interestingly, among the experts on the disease.
00:18:22 Dr. Bredesen
The epidemiologists show us many risks from early menopause if you have.
00:18:27 Dr. Bredesen
If you have an early for example, if you have an early oophorectomy at the age of 40 or younger.
And you don't have hormone replacement, you double your risk for Alzheimer's, even though the Alzheimer's comes many years later, you actually double the risk. Low vitamin d herpes simplex, insulin resistance, hypertension, metabolic syndrome.
00:18:46 Dr. Bredesen
These very, very. different risk factors are all risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. I mentioned the pathology just a minute ago.

>100 genes

00:18:54 Dr. Bredesen
The genetics over 50 associated risk genes are now actually closing in on 100 different risk genes, the most common one is APOE 4, and so it's something we should all know. We should all know our genetic risk and interestingly, recently a geneticist said she would not want to know her genetic risk because there's nothing you can do about it.
00:19:14 Dr. Bredesen
As I'll show you today, nothing could be further from the truth. We should all know our risk and we should all get on active treatment or prevention.
00:19:23 Dr. Bredesen
Microbiology. Interesting. There are many pathogens that have been associated with Alzheimer's from things like P gingivalis from poor dentition, T denticola, herpes simplex from the lip HHV 6A, which comes in through the sinuses, Lyme disease, spirochetes other tip.
00:19:43 Dr. Bredesen
Borne illnesses, various fungi, candida. All of these things have been associated with Alzheimer's disease, but it's not just one and that's been the problem.
00:19:55 Dr. Bredesen
And then finally, the translation. You know what? What happened? This represents a field of greatest medical failure. Why has there been such failure? If you come in with Alzheimer's, if you come in with ALS, if you come in with frontotemporal dementia, the Doctor will tell you there's nothing you can do. So let's develop a treatment. Let's look at what you'd want to.
00:20:14 Dr. Bredesen
Do in an.
00:20:15 Dr. Bredesen
Optimal site.
00:20:16 Dr. Bredesen
Situation and let's look at, you know, what do we need to look at so people have said many different things about what this is. People have spent their whole careers working on the idea that this is just about amyloid. Let's get rid of the amyloid. And you, as I showed you a few minutes ago, you get rid of the amyloid. It doesn't make you better. It may slow your decline just a little bit, but it doesn't, really.
00:20:36 Dr. Bredesen
Make you better.
00:20:38 Dr. Bredesen
Some people believe this is all about Tao, others that it's prions, type 3 diabetes, chronic herpes simplex on and on and on. None of these has led to an effective treatment. So what do we need to do here? So what do we have to explain? We have to explain these disparate risk factors that I mentioned before. All sorts of different things. The many risk associated.
00:21:00 Dr. Bredesen
The amyloid, the, the, there's clearly implicated. There's something going on with this amyloid and yet it fails in the drug trials again and again and again the age associated risk it just goes dramatically up and especially for people who are now 65 and over. Although interestingly when I was training.
00:21:20 Dr. Bredesen

Before no Alz in 50’s, now Alz in 40’s

We never saw people who were in their 50s with Alzheimer's. Now it's one of the most common things we see, and even in their late 40s. So this is turning out to be very common. And actually there was an epidemiology report about two years ago showing that indeed.
00:21:33 Dr. Bredesen
The risk and the the incidence has climbed dramatically in the 40s and 50s over the just the last 10 years. And then interestingly, there is a mouse that develops Alzheimer's disease that simply has in its genome an antibody to nerve growth factor. So we need to understand why that would cause that problem.
00:21:55 Dr. Bredesen
And then these aggregates and doctors will tell you, Oh yeah, it's the aggregates. It's a beta or it's Tau or it's TDP 43. These are all present, by the way in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's, over half of Alzheimer's patients when you look in their brain.
00:22:10 Dr. Bredesen
Have these aggregated proteins, but not just amyloid, not just Tau. Another one called TDP 43 and another 1A Synuclein, which is actually characteristic of Parkinson's disease. So why do you get all these aggregates? And then, of course, the remarkable failure over 400 clinical trials, trials and then the fact that, yes.
00:22:30 Dr. Bredesen
These things do increase themselves, and so the idea of prions.
00:22:35 Dr. Bredesen
The Nobel Prize was given to Professor Stanley Prusiner at UCSF from his work on prions, showing that these are proteins that be get more of themselves, so they're almost like subviral particles. Little things that be get more themselves. We need to understand why that is and what role does that play in this disease.
00:22:55 Dr. Bredesen
And then the high incidence and prevalence, why is it so common? So any accurate model must be predictive and it must be internally consistent with all the different data, all the different papers and most importantly, make people better. That's the key.
00:23:10 Dr. Bredesen
So here's the problem. As I said earlier, simple illness there are going to be lots of things if you get pneumococcal pneumonia, we're probably going to do very well for you. Could be that you've got some alcohol on board that actually increases your risk if you've got diabetes, that increases your risk. If your B cells aren't doing well. For example, if you have multiple myeloma.
00:23:30 Dr. Bredesen
And there are many others.
00:23:31 Dr. Bredesen
But for as for physicians, the fact that the pneumococcus is so much more important than any other thing, we have gotten away with just treating you with antibiotics and ignoring all the things you've been hearing about from people like Doctor Furman and these other critical critical things that we need to address.
00:23:51 Dr. Bredesen
Now, that simply isn't the case when you come to chronic illnesses. So if you develop Alzheimer's, one of the risk factors is insulin resistance. Another one is the pathogens I mentioned. Another one is anything that is associated with inflammation. So your NF Kappa B and you can literally trace a molecular pathway from NF Kappa B to the production of the amyloid that we associate with Alzheimer's disease.

Many risk factors, but no principle one

00:24:16 Dr. Bredesen
Mercury is another risk factor. Mycotoxins, another one organic toxins, homocysteine and you go right down the list. There are dozens and dozens of things and as you can see, none of these is head and shoulders above everything else.
00:24:33 Dr. Bredesen
So we can't simply write a prescription that's going to get rid of Alzheimer's just by targeting one thing. That's the fundamental problem. So we therefore need to look at what's causing this for each person and then address those things.
00:24:49 Dr. Bredesen
So let's look under the hood and I'll show you why we do what we do, which has worked better than any other approach so far, and why we've done the trial that we have. So in your brain, you in your 10 to the 11, so you got 100 billion neurons, as I mentioned earlier, 500 trillion synapses. It's really quite remarkable.
00:25:09 Dr. Bredesen
And so you've got this molecule called ATP, which is amyloid precursor protein, and this is a really interesting switch.
00:25:18 Dr. Bredesen
This thing is literally gauging where you stand when things are good. You have enough hormones, nutrients. You don't have too much inflammation, you've got enough energy. This thing is cut at a single site and it produces 2 peptides, one for outside the cell here, one for inside. So this is the cell membrane and the neuron here.
00:25:38 Dr. Bredesen
You can see here inside outside the cell.
00:25:40 Dr. Bredesen
Well, things are good and it tells you you're going to go ahead and you're going to make new connections. And by the way, this is the same sort of thing that we saw in our country when we did, when we had the pandemic in early 2020. And I thought it was interesting that The Who, of course has just declared the pandemic over. Of course, people are still developing COVID-19.
00:26:02 Dr. Bredesen
So on the other hand, when things are bad, this same molecule is cut differently at three different sites, and now you've got two things on the outside and two things on the inside. And by the way, you can see, here's the amyloid this guy right here is the thing that makes up the amyloid, but there's much more to the story.
00:26:21 Dr. Bredesen
As you can see, than just that. So literally just as our country switched in its mode and said OK in early 2020, said stay in don't go into work, you're going to socially distance, you're going to shelter in place. And of course we went into a recession, we changed the nature of what we were doing in our country. Your brain does the same thing.
00:26:42 Dr. Bredesen
When it is doing well, it is making and storing connections. When it now gets exposed to insults, pathogens, severe stress, insulin resistance, reduced hormones, reduced blood flow, reduced oxygenation, reduced mitochondrial function.
00:26:57 Dr. Bredesen
On and on.
00:26:58 Dr. Bredesen
It basically says OK, I have to go into a protective downsizing mode, and therefore it flips over to producing these guys, which now go and say, OK, we're going.
00:27:10 Dr. Bredesen
Pullback and, for example amyloid beta, is a wonderful antimicrobial, so it kills not only not only bacteria, it actually kills viruses and fungi, it's quite striking.
00:27:24 Dr. Bredesen
So what that means is when we look at these chronic illnesses, they are fundamentally signaling imbalances and it really tells us Alzheimer's disease is ultimately a network insufficiency, as I'll show.
00:27:37 Dr. Bredesen
So when we get osteoporosis, what happens? We know that our osteoblasts, these little guys right here are not doing as much work as the osteoclasts. This is this multi nucleated thing here. Normally you're putting down some bone. You're picking up some bone. You're putting it down. You're constantly remodeling it, making your bones nice and strong. But of course, as we get a little older.
00:27:58 Dr. Bredesen
We we have an imbalance between the blastic and the plastic part.
00:28:03 Dr. Bredesen
Cancer, same idea. In this case, though, with the cytoplasmic activity exceeds the cytoplasmic activity, typically because you've been exposed to carcinogens smoking organic carcinogens on and on. And so they actually damage the DNA. They change this balance and cells start.
00:28:22 Dr. Bredesen
Growing, unfortunately, what we discovered in the laboratory is that Alzheimer's is The different you have a whole set of things that are synaptophysin that are helping you make your brain more synapses. You can learn new things, do new things. Unfortunately, they are chronically exceeded by the synaptic signals, which are various insults, and we'll talk about those. So what that means for the engineers in the group here.
00:28:49 Dr. Bredesen
Is that your probability of getting Alzheimer's is proportional to an integral over time, so you're developing this over years now. This doesn't tell you what test to order. The good news is this is about the same as four things, things that are causing inflammation, things that are causing toxicity, things that are reducing your energetics.
00:29:09 Dr. Bredesen
And things that are reducing trophic support and the take home message here is you can reduce Alzheimer's mainly in 90% of it plus to two things.
00:29:20 Dr. Bredesen
It's too much activation of the innate immune system, so immune activation and too little energetics to cover that. So you you've got this beautiful, supported brain, but it is living on the edge. It's living on what you are giving it. And as you now give it less and demand more of it because you've got ongoing inflammation and toxin.
00:29:43 Dr. Bredesen
Exposure you are now unfortunately making it so that it has to do the same thing that our country did during the pandemic. So you're now cramming it into a smaller and smaller space. Unfortunate.
00:29:55 Dr. Bredesen
What this means is if we're going to develop one drug that would do something for Alzheimer's, it would have to look like this. It would have to do all these different things, which is a huge order for a drug. So we really need to look at protocols so that we can heal these various issues. We want to reduce the inflammation, get rid of the things that are causing it.
00:30:15 Dr. Bredesen
And then we want to increase the energetic support. If we can accomplish those two things, we can make people so much better and we see it again and again and again and I'll show you the results of our clinical trial where we saw exactly that. So what I tell patients is.

Roof with 36 holes – patching just 1 does not help

00:30:30 Dr. Bredesen
You got a roof with 36 holes. We got to look. A drug is a really good patch for one hole, but it's not going to do all the things that you need to do. It also shows that people get it for different reasons, as you can imagine some people because there's too little energy. Some people because there's too much inflammation, some people both. So there are people who get this mostly because of infections.
00:30:54 Dr. Bredesen
Some or what we call atrophic. They have reduced hormones, nutrients and growth.
00:31:00 Dr. Bredesen
Doctors and then some people, we call this glyco toxic and we call it type 1.5 because it gives you both. It gives you inflammation because of your glycated proteins, but it also gives you an atrophic response because you have insulin resistance. So your brain does not respond to insulin. And when we used to grow neurons in the in the.
00:31:20 Dr. Bredesen
Lab. You always had to include insulin, transparent and selenium. These are the so-called ITS these are the critical factors to grow neurons in.
00:31:28 Dr. Bredesen
A dish they.
00:31:29 Dr. Bredesen
Have to have insulin so as you lose that effect, unfortunately the neurons don't do well.
00:31:35 Dr. Bredesen
And then, toxics, what we call Type 3 can be inorganics can be organics can be biotoxins and then vascular. This is a common common contributor. And then finally traumatic. And then if you actually look at what happens when you have head trauma, amyloid is an early response to the head trauma.
00:31:54 Dr. Bredesen
So I want to spend just a couple of minutes talking about the most important and the most common gene that is associated with also.

APOE – 4 – 75% have 0 copies, single copy 30% higher risk of Alz. 2 copies = 70% higher risk

00:32:01 Dr. Bredesen
Members because there are 75,000,000 Americans who have a single copy of Apoe. 4 and there are about 7 million Americans who have two copies of 8.4. Now, if you have 0 copies and that's 3/4 of the population, your chance of getting Alzheimer's during your life It's not zero, it's about 9%, but. it's not too high.
00:32:26 Dr. Bredesen
If you've got a single copy, and again 75,000,000 Americans are in that situation, the vast majority don't.
00:32:32 Dr. Bredesen
Know it. We should all find out and get on active prevention so we don't have a problem. And of course, everyone heard recently about Chris Hemsworth, who found out that he has two copies, so he he's in the toughest situation and really of course this is going to be on active prevention.
00:32:47 Dr. Bredesen
So single copy, your risk goes up to 30% for your lifetime, 2 copies. It goes up to 70% approximately and there are some that's even higher depending on other genes. Some that's a little lower, again depending on other genes.
00:33:01 Dr. Bredesen
So it had been clear for years and years and years you start out with Apoe 4, you end up at the other end with Alzheimer's disease, but not clear how what takes you from AOE 4 to Alzheimer's. So we spent years in the laboratory looking at this. How does this actually work? And what we found was absolutely fascinating and showed us.
00:33:21 Dr. Bredesen
A lot about evolution, about short gevity versus longevity, about Alzheimer's disease and about the God gene. Does this thing has so many effects. So if you go back 5 to 7,000,000 years, you go out to to the Savannah and the trees 5 to 7,000,000 years.
00:33:38 Dr. Bredesen
So what you have is you have the simians and they actually don't have eight OE 4. They have a Simeon Apoe, which actually has a different characteristic than Apoe 4. So this was actually associated with the leak from simeons to hominids.
00:33:56 Dr. Bredesen
Here so you can see here there was a relatively small number of changes, so it's remarkable how similar simian DNA is to hominid DNA. So literally God touched the simeons changed very few things in their DNA and you ended up having the hominid.
00:34:15 Dr. Bredesen
Very different scenario and then of course, when I I've told my wife, you know, my my DNA overall is more similar to A to a chimp male chimp DNA than it is to yours, she said. Well, duh, of course. You know you're you like the Three stooges. You like ESPN, you know that? So does the chimp, et cetera. So we are remarkably similar. Now, interestingly, what has changed?
00:34:36 Dr. Bredesen
Much of it is related to. Guess what inflammation. So part of what allowed us to come down out of the trees, walk along the Savannah.
00:34:45 Dr. Bredesen
Stub our feet. You know, puncture our feet, get wounds, eat meat. That was raw. That was full of microbes. Fight with our food. Fight with our brethren. All had to do with lots of inflammation. We live in a more pro inflammatory. At least when we.
00:35:00 Dr. Bredesen
First came down out of the trees, a more pro inflammatory state.
00:35:04 Dr. Bredesen
Van the simeons. And so we actually needed that. And interestingly, Apoe 4 was the primordial gene for 96%.
00:35:14 Dr. Bredesen
Of our evolution, it's just been able before and it's just been in the last 220,000 years. Apoe 3 appeared, and then 80,000 years for APOE 2. So here you can see the striking differences here. 8 OE, 4 looks like columns on a house, and that's because this arginine, which has a positive. Oops, sorry.
00:35:35 Dr. Bredesen
That's because this arginine, here 61, which has a positive charge, interacts with glutamate 255. So, which has a negative charge. So it holds these together. This was called by Professor Mayley, who discovered 8.
00:35:46 Dr. Bredesen
The this is called domain interaction. Now you can see here what happened then 220,000 years ago a new mutation appeared in hominids Sistine 112 which interacts with arginine 61. So now this looks like a Nutcracker instead of looking like columns. Quite different looking molecule.
00:36:07 Dr. Bredesen
So as I said, we've all been able for just until relatively recently 220,000 years ago and then 80,000.
00:36:13 Dr. Bredesen
Years ago, Apo E2 appeared and now the most common one is Apoe 3 instead of Apoe 4, so eight OE 4 is a pro inflammatory gene. Very helpful if you live in a third world country, you're going to live longer and do better. If you're AOE 4, but if you live in the US, for example, then in fact you're going to have additional inflammation.
00:36:34 Dr. Bredesen
So OK, we know what to do about that. There's a lot you can.
00:36:37 Dr. Bredesen
Do if you don't do anything on average, you're you have the increased risk for Alzheimer's and you have.
00:36:44 Dr. Bredesen
You have the slightly shorter lifespan, So what we discovered is that APOE 4 binds to receptors that had been known before, but the surprise was it actually interacts with a molecule called REL A, which is related to inflammation. It's part of NF Kappa B, and surprise, these actually go into the nucleus, they bind to 1700.
00:37:06 Dr. Bredesen
Different site.
00:37:07 Dr. Bredesen
On the DNA and they actually turned down. These are transcriptional repressors. They turned down things that are normally turning down inflammation. So they actually allow your inflammation to stay up for longer. And if you look at all the different genes that are controlled by Apoe 4, you couldn't tell a better story for Alzheimer's.
00:37:29 Dr. Bredesen
It has to do with inflammation. It has to do with aging and Sir T1. So it actually turns down Sir T1.
00:37:37 Dr. Bredesen
It has to do with neurotrophins. It has to do with disassembling microtubules and pulling back on your neurites. It's remarkable how much related this is, so I want to show you some success stories when we actually do the right thing. Good things happen. So here's a woman 68 years old. She's actually now been on this.
00:37:57 Dr. Bredesen
For seven years, she presented with Paraphasic Air, so she was having problems with what she was saying. She would say the wrong thing. She had some.
00:38:05 Dr. Bredesen
She struggled with her computer work, completing A gingerbread man, confused her clock hands, and it really scared her when she forgot to pick up her granddaughters. She actually went in and got on a drug trial. She had a positive amyloid PET, so she was a diagnosis of MCI due to Alzheimer's disease was made. So she was already in that third phase out of the four.
00:38:25 Dr. Bredesen
She scored a 24 out of 30 on the Moca the so that's significant. MCI. This was actually a professor, so she had fallen a long way to get to a mocha of 24. Her hippocampal volume was only 14th percentile.
00:38:40 Dr. Bredesen
So she began on a clinical trial for a drug that removed amyloid, and each time she got the drug, she clearly got worse and she would kind of slowly fight her way back to almost where she was. And then she get another injection a month later. So after 8 treatments, she left the trial and she said this is making me worse now.
00:38:58 Dr. Bredesen
So she then had further evaluation. She failed her visual contrast sensitivity, which suggests she has been exposed to biotoxins. Her C4A was high. Shouldn't be over 2830, her TGF beta one high shouldn't be over 2380, so she had all the markings of exposure to biotoxins.
00:39:19 Dr. Bredesen
Indeed, she ended up having biotoxins she had been exposed to mold and mycotoxins.
00:39:26 Dr. Bredesen
So she began on our our protocol.
00:39:29 Dr. Bredesen
She included a plant rich, mildly ketogenic diet. This is called Keto Flex 12/3 and I'll I'll show you more about that in just a few minutes because it's an important part of the overall of the overall approach. You you need to address multiple things to get people back. In other words, you're literally addressing their synaptic network.
00:39:49 Dr. Bredesen
To improve them so that they can.
00:39:51 Dr. Bredesen
Actually make and and.
00:39:53 Dr. Bredesen
Use synapses again, literally so that they can learn once again.
00:39:57 Dr. Bredesen
She was she was treated for Marko.
00:40:00 Dr. Bredesen
This is the multiple antibiotic resistance. Coag, negative staph. She went on detox among other modalities, and let's see how we're doing on time here.
00:40:10 Dr. Bredesen
OK, good. Alright, so.
00:40:15 Dr. Bredesen
OK, so her symptoms resolved. She did very, very, very well. Once again, she could speak. She could find her words. She could cook, shop, tell time, build gingerbread. Man no longer forgot to pick up her granddaughters. Actually, her granddaughter said they were really impressed at how much better she got. And they they noticed it. Her mother went to a perfect 30.
00:40:36 Dr. Bredesen
Her hippocampal volume went up from 14th to 28th percentile and she's remained stable for six years and now we're in. She's in her 7th year.
00:40:45 Dr. Bredesen
So here's.
00:40:46 Dr. Bredesen
There we go. So here's a guy whose family history was positive. Both parents above. He also had a single copy of Apoe. 4 Amyloid PET was markedly positive. FDG pet was typical for Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampal volume was reduced. Neuro Psych testing showed that again. He also had NCI and you can see why.
00:41:06 Dr. Bredesen
He had it so his HSRP, his inflammation quite high. It should be less than one. We'd like to see it. More like down. Like point 2.5.
00:41:15 Dr. Bredesen
This is up almost 10, almost 16, which like to see it at 7:00 or below. He was at 15, his vitamin d we'd like to see him at 50 to 80. He's at 21. His testosterone was low, his thyroid was low, and he responded metabolically, cognitively, volumetrically to the approach that we've taken, his neurologist said. He's now normal.
00:41:37 Dr. Bredesen
He's done very, very well and you can see here just this dramatic his fasting insulin improved from 32 is very high to 8. Now 8 is still not perfect, but it's far better than he was his HSC RP. Again, it's not perfect, but it's much better than.
00:41:52 Dr. Bredesen
Was his homocysteine came down? His vitamin d came up. He was doing very, very well and actually his hippocampal volume went up dramatically.
00:42:03 Dr. Bredesen
There we go. So his Gray matter volume actually went up by 23%. So this is, you know, striking improvements in all these different areas.
00:42:13 Dr. Bredesen
So let me talk for a minute about the precision medicine trial for Alzheimer's. So this was done with doctors and Anne Hathaway cat tubes and Deborah Gordon. Anne is right here in Marin County in California. Cat tubes is out in the East Bay, and and Doctor Deborah Gordon is up in in Oregon up in Ashland.
00:42:33 Dr. Bredesen
In three fantastic positions, so I'm really honored to have done this trial and we're now actually just starting a second trial at six sites. So I'm very excited to work with with Doctor Hathaway again. Doctor tubes. Unfortunately, Doctor Gordon has retired, so we unfortunately couldn't couldn't have her be involved. I wish.
00:42:52 Dr. Bredesen
Could have, but we now fortunately have doctor Craig Tanio from Hollywood, FL doctor David Hassey from Nashville, doctor Nate Bergman.
00:43:01 Dr. Bredesen
From Cleveland and and and doctor Christine Burke, who is from Sacramento. So this is going to be a fantastic trial, but I want to show you about the first trial. And this was a proof of concept trial. Just had 25 people to show. Can we actually make people?
00:43:17 Dr. Bredesen
Better. And so this is the first trial in which instead of predetermining a treatment, the contributors were identified and then targeted. And you can see this trial on clinicaltrials.gov. It's registered at clinicaltrials.gov. And as you know, with all these previous trials, what happens? People end up when they say ahead of time.
00:43:38 Dr. Bredesen
OK, we're going to treat people with this, whatever it is, without knowing ahead of time what's causing the problem. So we actually looked at what are the things that are actually causing the problem for each person, and then addressed those.
00:43:51 Dr. Bredesen
So we got because this was a protocol, multiple pieces to it, it got denied by the institutional review boards in 2011, got denied again in 2018 we finally got approved in 2019. We completed this in 2020 actually was published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. So it's freely available online. You can look at.
00:44:11 Dr. Bredesen
All the data.
00:44:12 Dr. Bredesen
You can look at everything freely available online in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, and actually that part came out in 2022. Back in August of last year.
00:44:21 Dr. Bredesen
So as I said, small proof of concept trial we took people who had mocha scores of 19 and above. So what this meant was they either had mild cognitive impairment or they had early dementia. These weren't end stage dementia. So we're when we're interested separately in that because there's more you have to do. But these were people who were in that third and early 4th stages.
00:44:44 Dr. Bredesen
We treated them for nine months and then we compared that to historical outcomes because there's a tremendous amount that's been known about what these people.
00:44:51 Dr. Bredesen
Actually the the curve that they're actually on, as I mentioned earlier, you lose on average about 3 1/2 points per year. So we sought to look at the root cause contributors. So we looked at pathogens, we looked at toxins, we looked at their genetics, we looked at their nutrients, their trophic hormones and their their trophic factors and hormones, their immune responses.
00:45:11 Dr. Bredesen
Et cetera.
00:45:13 Dr. Bredesen
So the goals for this number one, we want to improve their energetics again because that's the critical denominator here. We want to get these people into mild ketosis. If you're measuring by blood one to four millimolar beta, hydroxybutyrate, if you're measuring by breathalyzer for example, the biosense breathalyzer would be one of them.
00:45:33 Dr. Bredesen
You want to get above 7, preferably even above 10 on what they call aces. Now you're measuring acetone instead of, but blood probably a little more on a moment by moment basis. Accurate, but they they either 1 can be excellent for telling you that you are getting successfully into key.
00:45:51 Dr. Bredesen
Kosis and then cerebral blood flow. We want to improve that. We want to improve the oxygenation, the mitochondrial function, and then we want to make sure that you are metabolically adapted. So you're you're metabolically flexible. You can literally go back and forth between burning ketones and burning glucose in your brain.
00:46:10 Dr. Bredesen
Insulin sensitivity. We want your homa IR to be 1.0 or.
00:46:14 Dr. Bredesen
Lower. We want to make sure you have enough trophic support. We want to make sure that you resolve inflammation and prevent further inflammation. And of course, the most important thing, remove the source are do you have inflammation because you have leaky gut? Do you have some mast cell activation? That's a common association.
00:46:34 Dr. Bredesen
Virtually everyone who is having cognitive decline does have activation of their microglia, so we want to bring that back down. So things like resolvents very, very helpful to bring that down and then determining what's causing.
00:46:48 Dr. Bredesen
And then treating the pathogens and optimizing the microbiomes, not only the gut microbiome, but also the oral microbiome, if you if you've got high amounts, for example of P gingivalis or T denticola, or P intermedia, or F nucleon in any of these things are associated with period on Titus.
00:47:08 Dr. Bredesen
And they can mix.
00:47:09 Dr. Bredesen
Great, not only for associations with cardiovascular disease, even have associations with cancer, but they actually can migrate into your brain. And what is your brain do and it responds, it makes amyloid to cover these things and sequester them for the rest of the brain. So again, what we call Alzheimer's disease is really a response.
00:47:30 Dr. Bredesen
To these various insults then, we want to detoxify from organics, inorganics biotoxins. If you're exposed to mercury, we want to make sure that you can detoxify there.
00:47:42 Dr. Bredesen
And then, interestingly, people do the best with some mild stimulation, whether they use light stimulation and some people use V light or neutronics, and they're other things to do. There's of course, transcranial magnetic stimulation. There's something called Mert, which is another form of magnetic stimulation. And of course, brain training is another good one.
00:48:02 Dr. Bredesen
All of these things can be helpful once you've done the right things to say.
00:48:06 Dr. Bredesen
Work the brain and then again, as I mentioned earlier, you when you get this cognitive decline, you typically have a mismatch between your innate system and your adaptive system. We want to bring the innate down we want to allow the adaptive system to clear out the problem, whatever they happen to be.
00:48:23 Dr. Bredesen
And then ultimately, after we do these other things, we want to bring down your amyloid and you can do that with things like curcumin actually binds amyloid quite tight.
00:48:33 Dr. Bredesen
And helps to reduce the amyloid now these anti amyloid drugs are being used in these high doses which is unfortunate. What we'd like to do ultimately is do all the other things right first and then use small doses of these things to slowly remove the amyloid from your brain as it is currently. You go in there as a monotherapy in these drug trials.
00:48:54 Dr. Bredesen
You grab the amyloid and you rip it away, you're doing it with antibodies. So you're creating some degree of inflammation. You're also taking amyloid, which actually helps to patch blood vessels, and you're literally ripping. It's like, it's like ripping a patch off.
00:49:10 Dr. Bredesen
It's higher and so no surprise you get these micro hemorrhages very commonly in the trials. And then finally we want to regenerate what's been lost. These people have lost synapses, so we want to support that, and that can be stem cells. It can be intranasal trophic factors. It can be optimizing BHRT all of these things.
00:49:31 Dr. Bredesen
Can be used and are helpful to regenerate these lost synapses. And again, you don't want to wait until the neuron itself has died. You want to get in early. So in this trial.
00:49:44 Dr. Bredesen
We included MOCHA scores. We included CNS vital signs and and again mocha scores here. Let's go back to here. Mocha scores are zero to 30. What's good about the Montreal Cognitive assessment of Mocha is that it is something that tests multiple parts of the brain. So it's looking at executive function. It's looking at verbal memory.
00:50:05 Dr. Bredesen
It's looking at things like like switching and looking at calculation, so multiple areas of the brain in a very simple test that just takes about 12 to 15 minutes to administer.
00:50:18 Dr. Bredesen
Now, CNS vital signs is an online approach. It's much more sensitive to the mocha, so the mocha very good for people who are relatively affected. CNS vital signs are very good for people who are minimally affected. So putting the two together, we could really get a good dynamic range to see where people stand.
00:50:38 Dr. Bredesen
And let's see how we're doing on, OK, we're doing great on time. OK. So the MRI, we want to know, what does your brain look like? And most important, we want to know what are the volume metrics we want to know. Has your hippocampal volume gone down? And interestingly, we see it improve with people when you do the right things.
00:50:58 Dr. Bredesen
So if you look at the neurocognitive index, these people improved overtime and again this is very different if you look at a drug trial, what you're going to see is going from here, down, down, down, but a little hopefully slightly more so.
00:51:11 Dr. Bredesen
Usually in this case we actually see people go up so they improve their CNS vital signs data, they improve their mocha scores and you can see here the pandemic started right here. So you could see actually a few people did drop off the good news, we still had many people who did extremely well. So there was a statistically significant difference.
00:51:32 Dr. Bredesen
With an improvement in these people over the nine months that they did this.
00:51:37 Dr. Bredesen
If you look at their metabolic status goes hand in hand. They improved their metabolic status, they improved their CRP's, they improved their hemoglobin A1C and they were, these were statistically significant.
00:51:50 Dr. Bredesen
Now their homa.
00:51:51 Dr. Bredesen
IR's improved, but they they didn't reach statistical significance. We didn't have follow up comma.
00:51:57 Dr. Bredesen
Hours on enough of these people, unfortunately, but it was clearly improving and the ones that had it.
00:52:02 Dr. Bredesen
Their triglyceride to HDL ratios improved so their lipid status improved, their homocysteine's improved, their vitamin d's improved and these were all statistically significant in their improvement.
00:52:17 Dr. Bredesen
So if we looked at MOCHA scores, as I mentioned, 76% of them improved the neurocognitive index from the CNS vital signs, 84% of them improved the sub tests. There were improvements in verbal memory, executive function, psychomotor speed and on and.
00:52:32 Dr. Bredesen
On their AQ 20 this is interesting. So the AQ 20 is something that this.
00:52:37 Dr. Bredesen
The partner uses to say is this person better in this?
00:52:41 Dr. Bredesen
Area or that?
00:52:42 Dr. Bredesen
Area and they have a scale from much worse, a little worse. No change. A little better, much better so-called Likert scale.
00:52:50 Dr. Bredesen
And so we had the partners gauge, did they actually see improvements of these people? And they did see a statistically significant improvement then we also looked at their brain training, all of them improved on their brain training scores. Then we also looked at their MRI's and their Gray matter volume, which was very interesting because that actually got bigger.
00:53:11 Dr. Bredesen
People who have already been diagnosed with MCI or dementia clearly decrease their Gray matter volumes between 2 and 4% per year. These people actually got.
00:53:23 Dr. Bredesen
Bigger, they did better.
00:53:24 Dr. Bredesen
Than people who are just normal.
00:53:26 Dr. Bredesen
The aging then their hippocampal volume shrank very slightly, but less than people who are normal, who are aging and much less than people who have cognitive decline. So across the board, striking improvements now what is associated with good outcomes, what's associated with bad outcomes, not everybody gets better. Why is that?
00:53:47 Dr. Bredesen
So what we've seen over the years, the fog.
00:53:49 Dr. Bredesen
And it's easy to make people better or easier to make people better when they come in early. The earlier they come.
00:53:57 Dr. Bredesen
In the better.
00:53:58 Dr. Bredesen
The people who will come in for prevention we have not seen a single example out of thousands. We've not seen a single example of someone who started on prevention, did the right thing.
00:54:10 Dr. Bredesen
And still developed dementia. Now, to be fair, it does take years to develop dementia. Maybe we'll see it someday.
00:54:17 Dr. Bredesen
But so far we haven't seen it for the people who then had SCI, virtually 100% of these people improved. Now we didn't include the SC's in this trial. We went further. They were the ones who we only included people who had MCI or early dementia.
00:54:32 Dr. Bredesen
Once you start dropping down 16 and below, it is tougher and tougher to make people better. We have seen some people with mocha scores of 0.
00:54:42 Dr. Bredesen
Improve we've even seen people go from local scores of 0 to 9. They can dress themselves again, speak again. So it does make a big subjective difference, but we've never seen anyone go from zero to a perfect thirty. That's my goal. We like to be able to take people from zero up to 30. There's more that we'll need to do clearly.
00:55:02 Dr. Bredesen
So if you can get people to come in.
00:55:04 Dr. Bredesen
When they still have mocha scores of 18 or above, it's easier to make them better. And I should mention a very similar trial with very similar results is about to be published. This was carried out by Doctor Heather Sanderson from San Diego. They did again very much like our protocol, very much in fact.
00:55:24 Dr. Bredesen
She was actually one of the the early students that that came when we started to offer this as training and she's done a fabulous job and set up marrama, which is the first assisted living facility that uses this protocol. She's had some wonderful result.
00:55:38 Dr. Bredesen
She also then did a trial and people got better, just as they did in our trial. So I looked forward to her publication. She actually took people down to mocha scores of 16, but she saw the same thing as they were lower and lower. It was tougher and tougher to get improvements. The second thing is when you have people who have clearly addressable metabolic abnormalities.
00:56:01 Dr. Bredesen
The people who have high HSRP's and low vitamin d, things like that. No surprise they are easier to make better because you can address those things when you don't find what's causing the problem. It's it's harder to make.
00:56:16 Dr. Bredesen
And better.
00:56:17 Dr. Bredesen
The third thing, having a health coach and a supportive family. We've had a few people where the family just said we can't believe it. It's just not possible. Forget it. And no surprise, they always were working against they own their own family member and we've actually unfortunately had a few where the family was waiting to inherit large sums of money.
00:56:37 Dr. Bredesen
And they really didn't want to see the person get better, which was very sad to me.
00:56:41 Dr. Bredesen
So you want to work with a health coach and a supportive family and at the same time people who wear this family supportive have done very, very well, positive attitude and compliance, doing the right things. Don't give up. We've had people just like I'm going to do this, I'm going to live this protocol for nine months and people see that they can get much, much better. And then after that.
00:57:01 Dr. Bredesen
It gets easier and easier.
00:57:03 Dr. Bredesen
And then continued optimization. So as an example, one person did very well for about 5 years and then started to have some sliding said OK, something is being missed. Turned out she had two things that had been missed at the beginning. One of them was a tick borne illness.
00:57:21 Dr. Bredesen
Babesia and the other one was exposure to mycotoxins, and when those two things were treated, she's done well once again.
00:57:28 Dr. Bredesen
Then I mentioned earlier mast cells. Beware because some of the people will do well if they have mast cells. If you treat the mast cell cause of the inflammation and interestingly there are some some drugs like Umbrella V and nartec that are anti CGRP, they're actually made.
00:57:48 Dr. Bredesen
For people with migraines, but this is one of the things that's associated with mast cell activation.
00:57:54 Dr. Bredesen
And so one of the the the points that was made by Julie G, who is a citizen scientist, was that in her mother they giving her neurotech actually improved her cognition dramatic. And now she had some mass cell activation. So it's something to keep your eye open for. And then ketosis again, just as Stephen Kinnane.
00:58:15 Dr. Bredesen
So very helpful.
00:58:17 Dr. Bredesen
And then lack of severe toxicity. So people who have severe toxicity, you've got to stick with it. You just got to keep going and they'll slowly improve. But it may take a few years. People who've had long term symptoms where they've had problems with cognition for 1015 years, it is tougher. They've lost a lot of synapses. You have to remember.
00:58:38 Dr. Bredesen
The decline is associated initially with a chemical loss of synapses. They're still there, they're just not functioning. But a functional loss of synapses. But ultimately you have an anatomical loss, and as you're losing these neurons, it's tougher and tougher. And as you have more and more atrophy.
00:58:56 Dr. Bredesen
And that improvement in metabolic markers, just as I showed you for the trial.
00:59:00 Dr. Bredesen
Very helpful.
00:59:02 Dr. Bredesen
On the other hand, features that are associated with continued decline or compliance, lack of interest. People who said we've had a number of people said, well, yeah, I'm going to try a little piece of this, but I really don't want to do too much. Well, of course, they're not going to do very well.
00:59:17 Dr. Bredesen
Severe toxicity with continued exposure. People who refused to leave. One of the people in the trial had severe mycotoxin exposure in her house, and she said I'm not leaving and I'm not remediating. And no surprise, she was one of the very few people in the trial who did not improve.
00:59:35 Dr. Bredesen
And then the people who have single digit MOGA scores with many years of decline. Again, they've lost more. It's tougher to bring them back.
00:59:42 Dr. Bredesen
My hope is that as we go along, we will be better and better at doing that and then, as I said, lack of support from family and health coaches, failure to identify the key contributors that are actually driving this. However, as I mentioned, we have had some surprising responses of people with very low mocha scores doing well. We have one that.
01:00:03 Dr. Bredesen
Dealing with right now with a health coach and and the person has a mocha score of 0, but dramatic improvements with her husband noticing. Yes, she's part of the family again. Yes, she can take care of herself again. Yes, I can talk to her again, even though she's not able to do mocha testing. So you can still make a difference in.
01:00:23 Dr. Bredesen
Some of these people.
01:00:24 Dr. Bredesen
So how do we make Alzheimer's optional?
01:00:28 Dr. Bredesen
First thing, encourage everybody to get evaluated. We all know when we turn 50, we're supposed to get a colonoscopy. Well, don't forget your brain if you're 45 or over, and certainly if you've had it in your family. I recommend even 40 or over.
01:00:44 Dr. Bredesen
Identify and address the risk factors. It's easy to do. You can get some the the blood testing you can get. You can go on. My cognoscenti.com get blood testing. Get an online cognitive assessment. It takes about 25 minutes. It's easy. And then only if you have symptoms already. You should also get an MRI with volumetrics.
01:01:05 Dr. Bredesen
If you develop symptoms, get an evaluation. Do not wait this old fashioned idea that yeah, you know, just wait because there's nothing we can do. Nothing could be further from the truth if we could get everyone to come in during SC I, virtually nobody would have to get Alzheimer's, as you know, and virtually nobody would have to get dementia from Alzheimer's.
01:01:26 Dr. Bredesen
We need to increase the sensitivity. You know, you look at someone with an MSC. This is really good for people with dementia. It's virtually worthless for people who in the earliest stages. This is why these online very sensitive cognitive tests are really important. We want to catch early early on and say, you know what things are changing a little.
01:01:46 Dr. Bredesen
Another way to go about that is electrophysiology and Dr. Dave Hagedorn.
01:01:51 Dr. Bredesen
His wife have done a very, very good job with developing electrophysiology and being able to look at patients for very early on and see changes for example, and things like P300B and the Theta beta ratio, quantitative EEG changes, things like that.
01:02:08 Dr. Bredesen
And then we.
01:02:09 Dr. Bredesen
Want to utilize to optimize the efficiency.
01:02:12 Dr. Bredesen
We want to have a hierarchical approach to make this public health.
01:02:16 Dr. Bredesen
We want to have everyone get on some basics and then a few people will slip through the cracks. OK, then they need to get more extensive evaluation and treatment and then a few of those people may may not succeed. So if you do it that way, you can. You have a very efficient public health program, which is what we're very interested in doing now and then using computer based algorithms.
01:02:36 Dr. Bredesen
Enhanced by AI, we can get better and better outcomes, data better and better looks at what's actually one of the most critical things to do.
01:02:47 Dr. Bredesen
So I want to spend a minute just talking about the diet because there's so much misinformation on this and people are doing all these crazy things. We have to come back to the fundamental biochemistry. This is a network insufficiency. You're not supporting that 500 trillion synapse network.
01:03:07 Dr. Bredesen
Work because you have ongoing immune activation and or you have a reduction in the energetics that are supporting this tremendous network. So we designed, here's what the actually works biochemically to make things best. What does it take to keep your synapses in good shape?
01:03:28 Dr. Bredesen
So no surprise.
01:03:29 Dr. Bredesen
It is an anti-inflammatory, mildly ketogenic plant rich diet and you can do this if you're a vegetarian or a vegan. You can also do it if you're an omnivore. Either one's fine, but it is plant rich in either of those cases.
01:03:47 Dr. Bredesen
This is what's given best outcomes, so the critical paradox here is this is a network insufficiency, but it's fueled by excess excess, simple carbs, excess processed foods, excess exposure to toxins. That's what's fueling the.
01:04:04 Dr. Bredesen
Problem. But we can't just tell people. Oh, yeah, do a whole bunch of fasting because you have to remember they are starving. Normally as you know, you can feed your neurons with glucose or you can feed them with ketones. You should be able to go back and forth in an optimal setting as we age.
01:04:22 Dr. Bredesen
We lose both.
01:04:23 Dr. Bredesen
Of those, you can't feed them with glucose.
01:04:25 Dr. Bredesen
Because you are insulin resistant. In fact, that's what the PET scans show for Alzheimer's patients. The signature for years before you have the dementia.
01:04:35 Dr. Bredesen
Is a reduction in glucose utilization in the temporal and parietal regions, but also you're not making ketones because you've got the high insulin insulin resistance which is preventing you from making and utilizing ketones. So we need to restore both of those and diet, exercise, sleep, stress. That's the beginning of the way.
01:04:56 Dr. Bredesen
To restore those and so we've developed something called Keto Flex 12/3. So for best outcome we need both insulin sensitivity and ketosis, in other words, metabolic flexibility, flexibility.
01:05:09 Dr. Bredesen
Be careful if you're dealing with a patient who has a BMI less than 20, let's say a BMI of 18 1/2. We see this all the time. They may be frail, they cannot do well with long periods of fasting. They may not have much fat to burn. So you want to start with some exogenous ketones to help them. So as a plant.
01:05:30 Dr. Bredesen
Mildly ketogenic diet with optimal fasting and that's typically 12 to 16 hours at night, so no surprise it's easier to start with someone who's actually a bit overweight. They've got fat to burn, they're insulin resistant. You can actually help them and toned down that ongoing inflammation.
01:05:49 Dr. Bredesen
So this is a high fiber high in phytonutrients, anti-inflammatory gut healing diet.
01:05:56 Dr. Bredesen
And of course organic. So it's low in toxins. It's a high fat intermediate protein, low carb, no simple carb diet, so no grains.
01:06:09 Dr. Bredesen
No dairy and no simple carbs.
01:06:14 Dr. Bredesen
Wild caught fish, not farmed fish, pastured eggs, pastured chicken, grass, fed beef and the the meat side of this is no.
01:06:25 Dr. Bredesen
So we've got we developed something called Keto Flex 12/3 and I'm really enthusiastic because so many people approached me and said, hey, you know it's a pain. How do I look for all this stuff? How do I put this together? You can follow yourself on a chronometer, which is 1 good way to go, but thankfully finally.
01:06:45 Dr. Bredesen
Nutrition for longevity, which has done such a great job, developed these keto flex you know, so you can literally just get them and these are coming out actually in about a week coming out May 15.
01:06:55 Dr. Bredesen
So, and they're relatively inexpensive, so you can just get these and at least helps you to get started and to. And here's what it looks like to do all the right things and actually try them myself. I was surprised at how well they did with with taste. And I was surprised at how, how well improve my ketone levels. So really nice thing. And I'm I'm truly grateful to nutrition for longevity.
01:07:17 Dr. Bredesen
OK, so let's finish up. Let's talk a little bit about what's new. And are we doing on time here, OK.
01:07:25 Dr. Bredesen
What's new? There are lots of new things going. This is really I have to say this is an exciting time. We should get to.
01:07:31 Dr. Bredesen
The point where?
01:07:32 Dr. Bredesen
These neurodegenerative diseases are all preventable, and especially early on reversible they should not be. The death sentences that they have been over the year.
01:07:43 Dr. Bredesen
So you probably heard about the two new drugs Lucano haven't done Enum have I mentioned already these at their best slowed the decline slightly in association with microhemorrhage cost of about $25,000 plus per year. It caused brain not just brain hemorrhage but also brain.
01:08:04 Dr. Bredesen
Edema, swelling, and both of them have led to a few deaths.
01:08:10 Dr. Bredesen
So I'm not too excited about those.
01:08:13 Dr. Bredesen
Interestingly, Homotaurine, which is now being looked at as a drug, actually looks a little better. One of the things it does and they they use this in the trials at 300 milligrams per day either 100 TID or 150 BID. I was pretty impressed by the trial. So this prevents the a beta from oligomerization.
01:08:34 Dr. Bredesen
So you have a less toxic form when you do make the a beta. Now I wouldn't use this alone, but with all the other things, it's one way to help yourself.
01:08:43 Dr. Bredesen
To decrease the oligomerization of the a beta and to make it a little less toxic. Now if you've got.
01:08:51 Dr. Bredesen
A lot of.
01:08:51 Dr. Bredesen
Exposure to microbes, and you need those toxic polymers oligomers to now kill the bacteria. You're not doing yourself any favors, but for people who've removed the source.
01:09:03 Dr. Bredesen
This one actually has some promise in its initial trial. It failed, but it was shown that for people who are Apoe 4/4, it did seem to have an effect. So what the the the drug companies done now is actually to develop a pre.
01:09:16 Dr. Bredesen
Sure, Sir. When they're they're testing once again and they would like to to market this. I'm not sure that you would need to have the precursor. You may be able to do fine with the over the.
01:09:25 Dr. Bredesen
Counter Homotaurine, we'll see.
01:09:28 Dr. Bredesen
Then, as I mentioned earlier, combined metabolic activators and there was a nice paper published on this just a few months ago. This combined four things LL serine, nicotinamide riboside, NS steal, cysteine and L carnitine. Now my concern with this one, they're only targeting the energetics, they're not targeting the immune system and they only looked at people for several months.
01:09:49 Dr. Bredesen
What about a year later, two years later? Three years later, we we've found the approach we've taken. We have people now, as I mentioned over a decade, still doing.
01:09:56 Dr. Bredesen
Well, so I'm a little concerned, but for short term for improving the energetics. This looks pretty good. The one other negative is they used massive doses L serum and gram, you know over.
01:10:09 Dr. Bredesen
Gram quantity so that I have a little concern about that. But again it supports the idea that this disease is about immune activation and reduced energetics.
01:10:21 Dr. Bredesen
I mentioned the randomized controlled trial, which is at six sites. It's literally just starting. We've already had the soft launch. So if you live within one hour of those six sites and you are early on in the process and you've just had some changes, mild cognitive impairment for example, and you haven't.
01:10:41 Dr. Bredesen
Already gone on our protocol because if you've already gone on it, you've already you've already done that, so you need to be, as they say, a virginal when it when it comes to treatment, then we'd love to have you be part of the new trial that's that's starting.
01:10:58 Dr. Bredesen
So if you live within one hour of Hollywood, FL, Nashville, TN, Cleveland, OH, Sacramento, CA, East Bay and of East Bay area, near San Francisco or in Marin County, just north of San Francisco, those are the six sites.
01:11:15 Dr. Bredesen
And then I mentioned the Keflex 12/3 from nutrition for longevity. I think this is going to be a fantastic way for people and people in assisted living facilities and in independent living facilities. They don't have to worry about all the shopping and you know, what do I do to this? So I think this is going to be very helpful for their COGS.
01:11:35 Dr. Bredesen
And then recent paper that came out and this is the work of Professor Rick Johnson, both Doctor David Perlmutter and I were co-authors on this, but this really is the long term, very elegant research of Professor Rick Johnson from University of Colorado. And what he showed was quite interesting. There is a mechanism.
01:11:55 Dr. Bredesen
That we have.
01:11:55 Dr. Bredesen
Developed during evolution that allows us late in in the fall as we're getting ready for winter.
01:12:02 Dr. Bredesen
We're eating tons of fruit now. You know, this doesn't mean you should need a piece of fruit. That's fine it. It means that you shouldn't go out and need 200 pairs. That sort of thing. Because when you have increase in fructose and this can also be because of high glucose. So. So unfortunately, people who have high exposure to glucose also get this because of the.
01:12:22 Dr. Bredesen
Enter conversion.
01:12:23 Dr. Bredesen
The elders reductase mechanism and what Doctor Johnson showed is that this phenomenon decreases your ATP. So it's basically taking your system and saying I'm going to have to winter without much food. So therefore I'm going to turn down my energy. Well, we already know what happens when you turn down your energy.
01:12:44 Dr. Bredesen
You increase your risk for Alzheimer's, and he showed so many parallels.
01:12:49 Dr. Bredesen
Between this response to fructose and what we call Alzheimer's disease, and again, it fits in perfectly to what we've been saying, anything that increases your inflammation, which this does or decreases your energetics, which this does and increase your risk for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease.
01:13:09 Dr. Bredesen
So I'm very enthusiastic about Professor Johnson's research.
01:13:13 Dr. Bredesen
And then you may have heard about the new blood tests and this is very interesting, I think because you know, we've had to take PET scans thousands of dollars, very expensive to get an idea or looking at MRI's. Now you can take blood tests now. That's scary for people because they say I don't want to know if my blood test shows that I'm in the early stages.
01:13:35 Dr. Bredesen
Yes, you do want to know. We all want to know because there's so much you can now do about it. Literally. If everybody would get these tests early on, look to see if they're headed for Alzheimer's and then get on appropriate prevention.
01:13:50 Dr. Bredesen
And there would be.
01:13:51 Dr. Bredesen
Very little Alzheimer's. So P Tau 181. What that is doing is it's showing you in an Alzheimer's associated way if the towel, which is a faster towel, is literally like bolts allowing your neurites to grow out and make these connections when you want to pull that back.
01:14:10 Dr. Bredesen
You phosphorylate your towel and that pulls the towel off the the pulls the bolt off and allows you to pull back. So when you are in that synaptic lastic state, your phospho Tau is going up 181 and also this phospho Tau 217 OK if that's high.
01:14:27 Dr. Bredesen
Do the right things. You should now be able to follow it down. It takes about six months to go down, but you want to be able to do that now. This has just become commercially available through LabCorp, the 181, the 217 hasn't become commercially available yet. It's still used in trials and I should say we're using all of these in our upcoming trial. This trial, that's just.
01:14:49 Dr. Bredesen
And the third done then is a beta 42. This tells you something different. This tells you as the 42 goes down, it's saying you've got inflammation going on. You are now lowering your the 42. That's peripheral. You're keeping it centrally to fight the various pathogens, et cetera, neurofilament light.
01:15:09 Dr. Bredesen
Is not specific it, but it says.
01:15:11 Dr. Bredesen
Do I have?
01:15:12 Dr. Bredesen
Neuronal damage from anything from trauma, from ALS, from Alzheimer's. So it's complementary to the other things. And then finally GF AP real fibrillary acidic protein very much complement.
01:15:25 Dr. Bredesen
Entry. It is nonspecific. It tells you that your astrocytes are activated, which happens very early on in Alzheimer's. So the good news is it's the first of all these tests to go up. Great way to find out. Early on. The bad news is that it's not specific for Alzheimer's, unlike P Tau.
01:15:45 Dr. Bredesen
181 and P Tau 217.
01:15:48 Dr. Bredesen
It it can be a, you know, it could be that you had a car accident and it could be that you've got a different disease going on, but it's an early warning system again to find out what's going on, get on active prevention. So I believe that within few years we're all going to be doing this. We're all going to be finding out if we are headed for a problem.
01:16:08 Dr. Bredesen
And we're all going to be stopping it.
01:16:10 Dr. Bredesen
So that we live.
01:16:11 Dr. Bredesen
Really can put an end to this problem with the current generation.
01:16:16 Dr. Bredesen
All right, we've published papers on this. So this these are all freely available online. You can read them, you can read and see our data. Also published 3 books. The end of Alzheimer's, which is now available in 33 languages. The end of Alzheimer's program because people wanted more detail. I know. So what do we actually do?
01:16:34 Dr. Bredesen
And then the the first survivors of Alzheimer's and this has seven different people who developed Alzheimer's and then all did very, very well. They all wrote their own stories. They're all still doing very, very well. So it's just, and I I would challenge you to read their stories without a tear coming to your eye. It's really striking to hear.
01:16:53 Dr. Bredesen
About their relatives dying and hear about them having problems and then getting better and then, you know, preventing their children from having the problem in the future.
01:17:03 Dr. Bredesen
So just to finish up with the art project here, the idea then is we want to take this out, what we're doing with Alzheimer's, which literally says there's a supply demand mismatch, too little supply, too much demand. This is for the neuroplasticity network, but there are different sub networks.
01:17:22 Dr. Bredesen
There is a motor control network that's critical for Parkinson's disease.
01:17:26 Dr. Bredesen
There is a motor power network that is critical for ALS. There are the macula that are critical for macular degeneration. We believe that all of these represent chronic or repeated mismatches between supply and demand, and each one has a different Achilles heel. Each one has a different supply set.
01:17:47 Dr. Bredesen
And a different demand set. So we should be able to adapt the same thing to each of these and we're actually just interacting.
01:17:54 Dr. Bredesen
With other groups.
01:17:55 Dr. Bredesen
To do just that, we have some nice early results with people with dry macular degeneration so very enthusiastic. We want to make it so these neurodegenerative diseases.
01:18:05 Dr. Bredesen
Our our thing of the past.
01:18:07 Dr. Bredesen
So one of my favorite quotes here is actually from a rabbi from Rabbi Tarfon who said you're not expected to complete your lifes work during your lifetime. Neither are you excused from it. So I'm 70. I'm just about to turn 71, so there's a lot more work to do here, and this is going to go on for many years after I'm gone, but I my hope is that we will make it so that.
01:18:29 Dr. Bredesen
These diseases, which have been so horrible for my generation, are things that nobody needs to worry about. So thanks very much. Thanks to Michael. Thanks to Stephen for the invitation and happy to take some questions.
01:18:42 Speaker 2
Thank you very much for that informative presentation.
01:18:45 Speaker 2
So we're now going to begin our live Q&A. I'll be asking questions as well as opening up the questions to the audience. But before we do, we'd like to give you opportunity to tell us where to get your books and where to follow you online.
01:18:59 Dr. Bredesen
Yes, thank you. So yeah, you can, you can get the books from Amazon. Basically wherever books are sold.
01:19:05 Dr. Bredesen
These came out from from Random House Avery.
01:19:09 Dr. Bredesen
And so you can get them anywhere you can get them in, you know, Barnes and Noble and get them on Amazon, you know, et cetera. And I know for a while they had them in Costco. I think Costco has run out of them now, but you can get them, you know, wherever good books are sold.
01:19:27 Dr. Bredesen
As far as online, thanks for asking. Yes. So there's a Facebook doctor, Dale Bredesen, also on Twitter, also on Instagram. All Doctor Dale bredesen.
01:19:38 Speaker 2
Thank you very much for that.
01:19:40 Speaker 2
So we'll now begin our Q&A session. We'll be asking questions of the presenter and if the audience has questions, we'll open it up to take questions from them. We will just want to explain to everyone how this works. We don't take questions directly from the chat. Instead, we ask everyone to virtually raise their hand if you're.
01:20:00 Speaker 2
Not sure how to do that.
01:20:01 Speaker 2
What you need to do is click on the reactions button on the bottom right of the zoom window, second from the right, then click on the raise hand function and in in the menu that pops up we will then take questions in the order in which we received them. When it's your turn, I will unmute you and prompt you to state your name where you're from.
01:20:22 Speaker 2
And ask your question. We ask that everyone keep their questions brief and on top.
01:20:26 Speaker 2
Quick, we will then mute you in order to give everyone a chance to get their questions answered. We won't be taking follow up questions. However, if you would like to give a follow-up question and there's still time, you can just hop on and and raise your hand again and we will repeat to to take questions in the order which they received.
01:20:46 Speaker 2
So we've got a couple of questions from the audience. So let's go ahead and start with Judy. Go ahead and state your name where you're from and your question.
01:20:58 Speaker 3
Hi, my name is Judy and I'm from the Philadelphia suburbs and if you have somebody who is a whole food plant based or a vegan and that person's underweight, do you still recommend the the fasting and the low carb?
01:21:19 Speaker 3
Especially if somebody is.
01:21:21 Speaker 3
Just having hard time holding one and with bone density and things like that.
01:21:26 Dr. Bredesen
That's a great point, and this is one of the most common things that comes up. So I what I recommend then is some, you know, fat bombs keep, you know, keep your weight up. You can cycle off once or twice a week. You have some things like, you know, like sweet potatoes and things like that.
01:21:42 Dr. Bredesen
But you want to have you want again. The goals are two critical goals. You want to be able to burn glucose and ketones. So you wanna give yourself some ketones at the.
01:21:51 Dr. Bredesen
Beginning now depends then on what your LDL particle number you. If you have cardiac disease, you probably don't want to take a lot of MCT oil, but you can use if you don't, you can use things like coconut oil or MCT oil along with things like exogenous ketones, things like KE1, ketone salts or esters.
01:22:11 Dr. Bredesen
To help you slowly get in and you're absolutely right, you have to be very careful. Remember that this is ultimately a network insufficiency, so the last thing you want to do is take.
01:22:22 Dr. Bredesen
Someone who's barely.
01:22:23 Dr. Bredesen
Making it and then put them on a long fasting period, they'll get worse.
01:22:27 Dr. Bredesen
Better so does that make sense? So you want to be able to give them enough fats and protein to make it so that they don't have that they don't contribute to their, you know, to to their.
01:22:42 Dr. Bredesen
To their weight loss. You know, you know you want to drop them down and that that is something that comes up a lot. So help them get into a a healthy BMI range.
01:22:52 Speaker 2
So should we be taking exogenous ketones?
01:22:57 Speaker 2
If we are healthy.
01:22:59 Dr. Bredesen
Yeah, that is such a good point because in general, what we say is for people who are truly in the prevention mode, you're totally healthy. Everything's good, no need. No, I wouldn't recommend exogenous ketones for those people. They should be getting naturally in and out of ketosis.
01:23:19 Dr. Bredesen
They should be metabolically flexible. You should be going in and you should have.
01:23:24 Dr. Bredesen
Each night, you know you're you should be doing that 12 to 16 hour fast at night. You know, if you.
01:23:29 Dr. Bredesen
Finish your dinner.
01:23:30 Dr. Bredesen
At seven, you probably don't want to start eating before 7:00 AM because of that same phenomenon. You want to have time to clean out your brain. You want to have that time for autophagy. It reduces your overall inflammation. It will help you.
01:23:45 Dr. Bredesen
To stay non inflammatory.
01:23:48 Dr. Bredesen
Longer, however, once you crossover, once you now start to have some complaints when that SCVI phase and you're saying you know things aren't quite perfect, or if you've already found that you have an abnormal PET scan or you find that already the blood tests are abnormal. Any of those things now the process has started.
01:24:08 Dr. Bredesen
So now you do want to start yourself on some ketones, and in the long run many people will not need exogenous ketones. They just get into endogenous ketosis. But again, I'm always telling people, be careful. You try to rush someone to into endogenous ketosis, you can make them worse because you're taking away that fuel for your brain.
01:24:28 Speaker 2
Thank you. Our next question is coming from Lakeisha Lakeisha. Please state your name where you're from and ask your question.
01:24:35 Speaker 4
Hi my name is Lakisha Peterson and my question is, is there any truth to people that care for and take care of people at all times, you know, family members? Do they end up developing it themselves and if so, how do you protect yourself from it?
01:24:53 Dr. Bredesen
You know, you brought up a really important point, lakeisha. So thank you for asking that. What has been shown is that people who care for people with cognitive decline have increased stress levels. So, for example, they have shorter telomeres. This is suggestive of stress. So they you got to take some me time and you really if you're.
01:25:13 Dr. Bredesen
If you're caring for someone like this, please.
01:25:15 Dr. Bredesen
Do some things to reduce stress, whether you like Shinobu or whether you like biofeedback or you like, you know, happy, whatever.
01:25:23 Dr. Bredesen
It is you.
01:25:23 Dr. Bredesen
Love you should be doing that now. Do they increase the risk now the the main or major risk for Alzheimer's is the genetic risk for them, the people who are taking care of them. But all these other things.
01:25:34 Dr. Bredesen
That we've talked about.
01:25:35 Dr. Bredesen
Contribute and so therefore, and when I say.
01:25:38 Dr. Bredesen
Major risk. I'm talking about family members whose care we're caring for someone. And yes, stress is one of the risk factors for cognitive decline, so I would recommend anyone who is a caretaker please get on active prevention. So what happens in your brain if you remember I was showing that.
01:25:59 Dr. Bredesen
That area.
You have.
01:26:01 Dr. Bredesen
In your brain stem in your ponds that is called the locust cerulean. This sends out norepinephrine.
01:26:08 Dr. Bredesen
Neurons, synapses now to multiple places, but two of them are hippocampus, which is what decreases in Alzheimer's and which is and what is and what is associated with forming new memories, but interestingly also to your amygdala. Your amygdala is where you're responding to that stress and.
01:26:28 Dr. Bredesen
Great. So that feeling of there's ongoing insults, it's not just biochemical insults, it's not just pathogen insults, it's also mental insults and things like aces that we've heard so much about with childhood and ongoing stress. So yes, I would recommend anyone.
01:26:46 Dr. Bredesen
Who is a caretaker? Please get evaluated. Get on active prevention. We developed a program called pre code that's easy to get on and easy to do to help to prevent the the problem. Now if you ever should develop problem then of course you want to move on to more evaluation and more treatment.
01:27:07 Speaker 2
Thank you, doctor. What is the difference between Alzheimer's and dementia?
01:27:11 Dr. Bredesen
Yeah, great point. So Alzheimer's disease is the underlying process and it is a cause of SCI&MCI and dementia. It is the most common cause of dementia. If you take all the people with global cognitive decline and.
01:27:27 Dr. Bredesen
By dementia, we mean in global cognitive decline. About 2/3 of them start with memory problems and then have other.
01:27:33 Dr. Bredesen
Problems, but the other third starts with other things. Problems with planning problems with paying bills, problem with recognizing faces, problems with word finding, problems with navigation and getting lost. All these sorts of things happen as well, and ultimately of course, you lose all of those things. There are other causes of dementia such as frontotemporal dementia.
01:27:53 Dr. Bredesen
Bluey body dementia? Things like that. Parkinson's associated dementia, all of those vascular dementia. Another relatively common one, but the most common caused by far is Alzheimer's. Now the Alzheimer's process.
01:28:05 Dr. Bredesen
Starts early on, typically in your 30s and 40s, but you don't know until later, and so it's a cause of dementia. But the good news is it gives us a long period of time, just like insulin resistance and pre diabetes. Give us a long time to prevent full on diabetes. We have the same situation with Alzheimer's disease.
01:28:28 Speaker 2
Thank you very much. Our next question is coming from.
01:28:32 Speaker 2
Haley. Haley, please state your name where you're from and ask your question.
01:28:36 Speaker 5
Hi. Hi. Thank you so much. You, you've been wonderful. My name is Kaylee Covington. And I'm from Plainview, Syosset, NY 2. Two parts of this city. And if we want to volunteer for being one of the.
01:28:52 Speaker 5
For one of the studies, whom would we contact? And is it possible to in to be participate without taking pharmaceuticals?
01:29:03 Speaker 5
But could include fasting and then. Do you have something specific for dissolving cataracts?
01:29:13 Dr. Bredesen
Yeah. Good. Good point. So as far as cataracts, I'm not an ophthalmologist. And so I would, I would certainly just go to the archaeologists. I mean, they're very good at removing category. That's actually one of the areas where classical medicine has been extremely successful. There are things that, as you know, in the market, carnosine related drops that are supposed to dissolve.
01:29:33 Dr. Bredesen
Metrex they have, they work a little bit you.
01:29:34 Dr. Bredesen
Know if you start early.
01:29:36 Dr. Bredesen
They haven't. Excuse me. They haven't worked particularly well.
01:29:39 Dr. Bredesen
So as far as the trial, the you have to live within one hour car drive of one of those six sites. So there's we don't have one in New York yet. You might want to check with with what's called age. Well, simply this is this is Kerry Mills Rutland who's done a fabulous job.
01:29:59 Dr. Bredesen
And she is just outside of New York City, and she's seeing a number of people, and they're actually sending them to the right physicians, et cetera. They've organized things beautifully. And she's really worked with people. I do think the role for health coaches.
01:30:13 Dr. Bredesen
Is such a huge 1 to get people to the right places to get them doing the right things to do all the all the right things to follow them to to do all the things that give you best outcomes. So I would encourage you to talk with Carrie or a member of her team if we do future trials there, there certainly may be one in New York.
01:30:33 Dr. Bredesen
But this this particular one, we unfortunately don't have any of the the practitioners in New York.
01:30:41 Speaker 2
Thank you, doctor. So you mentioned sugar and eliminating simple sugars, so should somebody who is generally healthy be avoiding sugars with the anticipation that they could contribute to Alzheimer's and other cognitive issues, and how much should we avoid fruit on a plant based diet?
01:31:01 Speaker 2
With that in mind.
01:31:02 Dr. Bredesen
Great point. And the bottom line is, as Doctor Johnson himself.
01:31:06 Dr. Bredesen
Said fruit is not a big deal. Yeah, you don't eat 200 pairs.
01:31:10 Dr. Bredesen
OK. I mean.
01:31:10 Dr. Bredesen
These the the the animals, the primates that do this, you know, right before winter they will actually literally eat 200 pieces of fruit and they'll get these big bellies. I mean, they're they're storing fat like crazy for the winter. If you have a few pieces of fruit. And of course, we like.
01:31:28 Dr. Bredesen
The low, the lower carb fruits, the lower glycemic index fruits, and I'm sure many other speakers at this conference would say the same thing.
01:31:36 Dr. Bredesen
Things like blueberries and and raspberries and things like that and the tropical fruits. You kind of want to stay away from things with very high glycemic indices, so that's important now.
01:31:49 Dr. Bredesen
As far as the you know, as far as the food and fructose and and carbs, yes, you want to avoid that. You know this is the the interesting thing, two pieces to this. Number one, when we say we're healthy, it's because typically no one's looked our definition of.
01:32:06 Dr. Bredesen
Health, unfortunately, is is is a very generic one. People walking around with and you saw the guy with fasting insulin of 32, you you should be walking around with a fasting insulin that's about four or five, not 32, and maybe even less, maybe even two or three.
01:32:27 Dr. Bredesen
You know and and so the bottom line is many of us are in the earliest stages of changes for things like insulin resistance without know.
01:32:36 Dr. Bredesen
Doing it so when you say healthy, yes, if you are extremely healthy and you're and everything's great, fine you, your humans do pretty well with metabolizing very small amounts of sugar. Although I wouldn't recommend it but you know a few grams. But we're typically exposed to 4050 sixty.
01:32:56 Dr. Bredesen
And you drink 1 soda. You may have 40 grams of sugar. This is horrible. So the the what's really happened is.
01:33:07 Dr. Bredesen
We have not been designed evolutionarily to live the way we are living, and unfortunately companies have made billions of dollars without care, you know, unfortunately without caring about your health just producing things because yes, we are again evolutionarily programmed.
01:33:27 Dr. Bredesen
To get that.
01:33:29 Dr. Bredesen
You know, quick hit. When I was an intern and staying up all night, taking care of patients, I would be really running out of gas about 3:00 or 4:00 AM. But I still had more patients waiting and had more hours to see people. I had to stay up all the next day and maybe all the next night. So what would I do? I'd take a slug of some things that were sweet. Give me some.
01:33:49 Dr. Bredesen
Energy or, you know, or some caffeine things like that. But it's horrible for your health in the long run. This is why we want to know hemoglobin A1C fasting insulin for some people, even in glucose tolerance.
01:34:02 Dr. Bredesen
Yes. So the bottom line is.
01:34:04 Dr. Bredesen
Even for healthy people, it's.
01:34:06 Dr. Bredesen
Not a good idea.
01:34:07 Dr. Bredesen
To be having cars, we really again, we weren't made to live this way.
01:34:13 Speaker 2
And how about fats contribution to raising insulin? Should we be avoiding fats for the same reason we would be avoiding those the more soon?
01:34:20 Dr. Bredesen
No, actually. So the the reality is we should be getting and everybody has things they want to tweak a little this way. So I I you know I I give credit fully to them where I'm just going by what helps you make and keep synapses and prevent you from getting dementia. And the thing that works best is Keto Flex 12/3, a plant.
01:34:41 Dr. Bredesen
Mildly ketogenic high, good fats, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated as lower unsaturated fats, you know low with, with plenty of phytonutrients, with fasting periods at night of 12 to 16 hours. If you're Apoe 4 positive, you want to go 14 to 16.
01:35:02 Dr. Bredesen
Hours. If you're -12 to 14 hours at night, this gives you time you want to have appropriate gut function. You want to feed your microbiome, and as Doctor Lustig points out, you know, feed your gut and protect your liver. These are critical.
01:35:17 Dr. Bredesen
And so the, you know, the putting this together was basically a way.
01:35:21 Dr. Bredesen
To do that.
01:35:22 Dr. Bredesen
And so, yes, you're ending up with many of your cows, most of your calories coming from good fats from avocados and and nuts and salads, things like that with, you know, appropriate. And to be fair, salads, yes, they have.
01:35:36 Dr. Bredesen
Carbs, but they have complex carbs, not simple carbs, and you want to stay away from the things that are pro inflammatory. You know, things like dairy and things like gluten. These are unfortunately inflammatory substances.
01:35:52 Dr. Bredesen
So again, to keep your brain in best best situation keto Flex 12/3 has worked better than anything else so far.
01:36:01 Speaker 2
Michigan avocados and nuts as healthy sources are there particular needs that are healthy seeds? Anything that in particular that is is better than anything else.
01:36:10 Dr. Bredesen
Yeah, I mean, definitely sees what are and I would you know.
01:36:13 Dr. Bredesen
I would be again go across the board.
01:36:16 Dr. Bredesen
You know, people argue against almonds sometimes because they are a monoculture. But almonds are fine. Pistachios are fine. Walnuts are excellent. I mean on and on. Now to be again, to be fair, you want a handful. You don't want to have a a jar full because they are high in Omega sixes. You don't want to go too high on your Omega sixes and you want to have a good Omega-3 to Omega.
01:36:38 Dr. Bredesen
Six level and you can get that from things like wild caught salmon and the so-called smash Fish, you know salmon, mackerel, anchovy, sardines and herring, little fish. You don't want to go to the Mercury laden big guys like shark and two.
01:36:54 Dr. Bredesen
And so doing that and then also taking some Omega-3, taking some fish oil or krill oil can be very, very helpful to give you an appropriate level. And yes, you know, all sorts of seeds that you can take from, you know, pumpkin seeds for example, there are all sorts of ones and I would defer to.
01:37:14 Dr. Bredesen
To to doctor Furman, who's who's spent his career looking at optimal diets for health, and I really believe in his work.
01:37:21 Dr. Bredesen
So again, we focused very much on what does it take to make and keep synapses in your brain.
01:37:27 Speaker 2
Thank you. How many people have you treated personally with this protocol and of those people who stuck to the protocol, how many of them got better?
01:37:36 Dr. Bredesen
Yeah. So first of all.
01:37:38 Dr. Bredesen
It's a great point and it sounds simple, but it's not. There are. So there are over 7000 people who've gone on this protocol. We've you can read the papers we we just published a couple hundred more in biomedicines. So we've got a publication on a number of them.
01:37:52 Dr. Bredesen
I'm personally what I'm typically doing as a researcher. You know, I'm a research neurologist, so I'm mostly working with the health coaches and the doctors who are taking care of the patients now. Yes, I did take care of the 1st 20 or so myself and and of those about 90% of them improved.
01:38:13 Dr. Bredesen
But that doesn't.
01:38:14 Dr. Bredesen
Really give you the.
01:38:15 Dr. Bredesen
The most accurate number in our trial.
01:38:18 Dr. Bredesen
84% of the people improved their cognition.
01:38:23 Dr. Bredesen
And CNS vital signs, 76% improved on on.
01:38:28 Dr. Bredesen
The mocha scores.
01:38:29 Dr. Bredesen
But when we looked at people out in the Community practicing this, it was only about 50%, so it does definitely make a difference and going to someone who's doing this and has done it for a while and is good at it, it makes a big difference.
01:38:43 Dr. Bredesen
We have people who are getting rare, people getting better, who are people who are where the vast majority of people are getting better. So it does depend a lot on your practitioner. It depends a lot on your health coach. It depends a lot on what's causing it. It depends a lot on your compliance. All of these.
01:39:01 Dr. Bredesen
And again, it depends on how far along you are. So if you ask me, SC, I.
01:39:07 Dr. Bredesen
We've made virtually 100% of the Sri people better if you ask me about MCI, I would say in a good situation it's going to be about 80% better in 20%, not better if you ask me about dementia then I would say it's going to be more like 5050 or even 3070 because it's again, it depends on how far along.
01:39:28 Dr. Bredesen
You are and a lot of other variable.
01:39:31 Speaker 2
What does the S stand for in SCI?
01:39:34 Dr. Bredesen
Subjective cognitive impairment.
01:39:36 Speaker 2
01:39:37 Dr. Bredesen
So these are the people where, you know, you know, there's something wrong. And one of the big problems we've run into is your doctor will tell you, oh, you're just getting a little older and, you know, I hear about this all the time, and it really makes me sad because.
01:39:48 Dr. Bredesen
It's one of.
01:39:48 Dr. Bredesen
The things that has delayed people getting in and doing the right thing, we had a.
01:39:53 Dr. Bredesen
That person recently who came in and who actually was already in the fourth stage already into dementia, had gone into a neurologist who said ohh, this is just normal aging. You don't have to worry.
01:40:04 Dr. Bredesen
And I mean, this was nothing could be further from the truth. This person should have gotten in a few years earlier. So please again. Please come in early and get get tested and get treated.
01:40:15 Speaker 2
Speaking of coming in early, what are the initial symptoms that should bring a person to seek help?
01:40:20 Dr. Bredesen
Yeah, great point. So all the things that we talked about any sort of memory problem, people will often say, oh, if you just forgot your keys, that's not a problem. Well, anything that's a change from before.
01:40:33 Dr. Bredesen
If you usually remember your keys and now you're routinely forgetting your keys, that's not normal that that something has changed, and there's. I would check out either again, freely available online AQ 21 that asked some basic questions. Are you having trouble remembering your keys? Do you have?
01:40:53 Dr. Bredesen
Trouble remembering where you parked your car. So memory are you having navigation problems? One of the common things you hear is that people will pull up to a stop sign and suddenly realize.
01:41:04 Dr. Bredesen
Gee, this is a a familiar place, but I really don't know which way to turn. And that's telling you you're having some problems that should be evaluated. Recognition of faces is another common when people will say, you know, I just don't remember. I I don't remember that face like, oh, I'm Joe, your old friend. Oh, yeah. OK. I got you people that they've recorded that they've.
01:41:24 Dr. Bredesen
You know that they knew from from recently or someone that they just met recently, they they they will completely forget their face problems calculating a tip. So calculation problems, paying bills.
01:41:36 Dr. Bredesen
Problems navigating with your driving, not just pulling up to a stop sign, but any sort of navigation with your driving we're finding is a is a relatively common one and recognition of shapes is another one. Remember executive function common, so problems with planning the.
01:41:55 Dr. Bredesen
Common one I hear is I got a new, you know, iPhone, iPad. What have you. And I'm having trouble adjusting to it or I got a new car and figuring out how to adjust to new things. That's another common one.
01:42:08 Dr. Bredesen
Having trouble doing their.
01:42:09 Dr. Bredesen
Job any of those things, please get evaluated and get things better.
01:42:15 Speaker 2
Thank you. You mentioned curcumin as that. That's helpful. We actually had doctor Samuel Pie earlier discussing, I don't know if you're familiar with with the part that he has that is curcumin based. Is curcumin something that we should supplement with in order to prevent Alzheimer's?
01:42:33 Dr. Bredesen
Yeah. So you know, there's also, again, they're all sort of you could we could spend hours talking about all the different pieces. The Great News is the armamentarium for cognitive change is now huge. We've been told over the years.
01:42:47 Dr. Bredesen
That there is nothing in the armature, there's nothing you can do to prevent or reverse or delay. No, that's not true. There's a tremendous amount you can do, and curcumin is one of 100 things. So it depends if you are especially, you know, have some inflammation. curcumin is excellent for inflammation. If you have some amyloid, curcumin is excellent.
01:43:08 Dr. Bredesen
Lines to amyloid and helps remove it. So I like curcumin as one of many things. But there are other things pregnenolone can be helpful for some people Omega threes. I really like. I I really like the.
01:43:23 Dr. Bredesen
I really like the.
01:43:25 Dr. Bredesen
Neural cue, which is one that actually I worked with the group to develop that it's got six different things in it including curcumin, including propolis and things that has worked very well for many people. I really like also the SPM active was designed by Metagenics and this was designed based on Professor Charles Serhan from Harvard's work.
01:43:45 Dr. Bredesen
Who showed that it's not just about anti inflammatories, it's also about resolving ongoing inflammation and they created a product metagenics I think did a really nice job and you know I have nothing to do with.
01:43:57 Dr. Bredesen
Metagenics or anything.
01:43:58 Dr. Bredesen
I don't get anything for saying this. I we're always just looking for the same thing, which is how do we get best outcomes?
01:44:05 Dr. Bredesen
And I like their product for that. There's another one, our terrasil, which is 4 vessels. Again, I don't have anything to do with that company, but it's a, it's a nice one that people have used for the blood vessel for blood vessel.
01:44:17 Dr. Bredesen
Health. And then, of course, things that improve your nitric oxide for so many people with vascular issues, that's those are good. So the bottom line is there's so much that can be done and therefore finding out where you stand, working with a trained practitioner, we've now trained over 2000 physicians.
01:44:37 Dr. Bredesen
To do this protocol and you can see this on my again on my cognoscenti.com find someone who's who's doing a good job and work with them.
So many of the.
01:44:49 Speaker 2
People who come to attend the visit are very proactive with their health and are looking to not reverse but prevent getting Alzheimer's in the 1st place. What would be the best ways? You know, we talked about some of the supplementation, but it sounded like that was more once you have it, this these are things you can do. What are the best things that we can do in order to prevent?
01:45:10 Speaker 2
Getting Alzheimer's in the first.
01:45:11 Dr. Bredesen
Yeah. And there there are no question, there are supplements that are very helpful with for prevention. So we we developed something called pre Code for Prevention of cognitive decline. Recode is for reversal of cognitive decline. And so those things are very helpful and and people can get on those. But they are what we call the seven basics. So that's diet and we talked about a, you know, mildly ketogenic plant.
01:45:32 Dr. Bredesen
Rich diet exercise and some really nice new things. If you people haven't tried katsu bands, especially for some of the older people, they can be very helpful. These are bands that are that are restriction bands that actually essentially give you more bang for your.
01:45:48 Dr. Bredesen
Block. There's also ewat exercise with oxygen therapy, which improves it, gives you not only blood flow the exercise, but also improves your oxygenation. So I really like Ewok, and there are some patients who who've done really well on EWOT, and so then, so exercise. And you want to do both strength training.
01:46:08 Dr. Bredesen
And aerobics. And then sleep. You could spend hours talking just about sleep and of course, Professor Matthew Walker from Berkeley, right near here has done a very nice job and.
01:46:17 Dr. Bredesen
His book Why we sleep, showing how important this is, and I just checked mine. You know you can do with wearables, things like oil rings, Apple watches, whatever you like find out. Are you getting 7 to 8 hours of sleep? Are you getting at least an hour and a half of REM sleep and at least one?
01:46:37 Dr. Bredesen
Hour of deep sleep each night. Do you have reduction in your oxygenate?
01:46:44 Dr. Bredesen
And you want to make sure that you're not dropping your oxygen. It's so common not just for people who have sleep apnea, but also for people who have upper airway resistance syndrome, very common to drop this, your oxygenation. You're hurting yourself. Then, while you're sleeping, get that oxygen up. You want to give me in the 90s, preferably above 92, and if?
01:47:04 Dr. Bredesen
Optimally would be.
01:47:05 Dr. Bredesen
In the 96 to 98% saturation there, so sleep is important.
01:47:11 Dr. Bredesen
During that time, of course, you're cleansing the brain and then stress management. As I mentioned earlier, stress is one of the common contributors, so check your heart rate variability. Are you sitting up there at, you know, 70 and 80 each day? Are you sitting down there more like 15 or 20 each day? You want to have your heart rate variability?
01:47:30 Dr. Bredesen
Be good and do some things that will improve it. Just some deep breathing, just some meditation, whatever it is that brings you joy and relaxation can be so helpful for your heart rate variability. So those are the top four. And then there is brain training.
01:47:47 Dr. Bredesen
Detox and some targeted supplements and you you mentioned supplements. Yeah. Things like curcumin and fish oil. And make sure your vitamin d is enough. And make sure your magnesium is up to snuff. All of these things can be very, very helpful. And even taking a few months of the SPM active the the these resolvents that.
01:48:08 Dr. Bredesen
They can be very, very helpful. So those are the basics. Then beyond that, if you ever have any problems then you want to look into it further. You want to find out, do I have gut pathogens? Do I have leak?
01:48:19 Dr. Bredesen
We got and so again, if you wanna be active about prevention, find out if you have a leaky gut, do a do a sample. You'll look to see if you've got any sort of GI issues. Check your oral DNA, which is easy to do now. There's a group called my period path that does oral DNA so you can see if you have any of these things that could otherwise.
01:48:40 Dr. Bredesen
Get into your brain and give you a prop.
01:48:42 Dr. Bredesen
Problem and you know, do some training. We like Brain HQ just because that's the one again that's been published the most brain HQ doesn't give me anything to say that. But it's the one that's been published the most. And Professor Mike Merzenich, who won the Copley Prize a few years ago, which is a bit like the Nobel Prize for just tremendous work he's done over the years.
01:49:03 Dr. Bredesen
He is the father of neuroplasticity and brain training, so all these things can be so helpful. But the main thing is if you're doing them great. If you're starting to have problems, then please get in and see someone to find out what's driving the problem.
01:49:19 Speaker 2
With regard to leaky gut, do you suggest probiotics or fermented foods as a way of healing the gut?
01:49:26 Dr. Bredesen
Yeah. Well, first of all, I think you want to spend a few weeks healing it up. And again, I would defer to the, the the real gut experts that you're talking to. But from the brain standpoint, absolutely there's you know about the gut brain connection, it's.
01:49:39 Dr. Bredesen
Amazing how.
01:49:41 Dr. Bredesen
Important that has turned out to be and you may have seen the recent very nice piece of work looking at a specific bacterium called desulfovibrio that's turned out to be related to Parkinson's disease. And as you have increased in that specific gut Organism, you increase your risk.
01:50:01 Dr. Bredesen
For Parkinson's disease, so there is this amazing connection.
01:50:06 Dr. Bredesen
And so, yes, we like things like bone broth in a non-toxic bone broth, again a fire and kettle. I have no relationship with them, but it's a been a good one. Some people make their own. That's fine. You don't want again. You don't want the ones from toxic livestock. But that's that one. I I I like a lot.
01:50:26 Dr. Bredesen
On DGL, I like a lot. Also for gut healing and then as you said things like probux orate from tesseract is done.
01:50:35 Dr. Bredesen
And they they again, they've done a nice job.
01:50:38 Dr. Bredesen
And healing up the gut, improving your your probiotics and prebiotics. These are all things that can be very, very helpful. And then of course SIBO has has turned out to be an issue. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. So anyone who's having any issues with the gut.
01:50:57 Dr. Bredesen
And especially any bloating things like that upward pressure, things like that. Gerd, please look into whether you might have SIBO. It's very treatable. And it's something that can be a problem.
In the whole.
01:51:10 Speaker 2
Food community. We like to think that we're we're bulletproof from a lot of.
01:51:13 Speaker 2
Diseases. There's a.
01:51:14 Speaker 2
Whole food plant based diet reduce the risk of getting.
01:51:18 Dr. Bredesen
No question. I mean, there have been publications, for example, just on Mediterranean diet, which really isn't particularly good for getting into ketosis, but it does many of the other things right. And the so-called mind.
01:51:30 Dr. Bredesen
Diet, no question. Having the right diet decreases your risk. For Alzheimer's. You know, interestingly, some very interesting work from years ago just showed blueberries alone. Blueberry consumption has a modest effect to decrease risks. So all of these things, again, it fits with the model that I showed you perfectly.
01:51:50 Dr. Bredesen
You've got energetics, you've got inflammation and these things are critical and diet, no question can feed both the reduction in the inflammation and increase in the energetics part.
01:52:03 Speaker 2
OK, it's gonna be our last question. So just if we can make it a brief 1.
01:52:07 Speaker 2
Things like tackle.
01:52:08 Speaker 2
Football contribute to Alzheimer's? And how about soccer players that that had the ball, basically?
01:52:14 Speaker 2
I guess any.
01:52:14 Speaker 2
Sort of brain injury, you know, minor concussions or or major concussions and their contribution to Alzheimer's.
01:52:21 Dr. Bredesen
It's such a good point, and it's a tough one because we all love football. We all love watching football on the weekends and and, you know, watching your kids play soccer and all these things. But yes.
01:52:31 Dr. Bredesen
Head injury, especially repeated injury, especially with loss of consciousness. There's just no question it does damage the brain and it does increase your risk for cognitive decline both on the so-called CTE chronic traumatic encephalopathy. And I should mention that has a triad aggression, depression, dementia.
01:52:53 Dr. Bredesen
So if you see people who've had head trauma in the past of being becoming more aggressive, depressed, and demented, think about CTE. That is important. That's important. And there are things you can do to treat that one as well.
01:53:07 Dr. Bredesen
But you're right, it does increase your traffic accidents increase your risk. So if you're going to be on a motorcycle, please get a helmet on if you're thinking if you're trying to decide between playing a tackle football versus playing baseball, you you might want to think maybe because baseball, you can have head injuries too. Maybe you think about running.
01:53:27 Dr. Bredesen
Black. Maybe that would be a little bit better, but yes, it's an issue. You might also want to check to see if you're applying for positive because you have a worse outcome for APOE 4. Positive if you have head trauma.
01:53:38 Speaker 2
Thank you so much, Doctor. Thank you for all the information that you share with us today. We're going to briefly unmute the audience so they can also share in their thanks for all the impression that you gave.
Thank you, doctor.