Modifiable pathways in Alzheimer's disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis.
BMJ. 2017 Dec 6;359:j5375. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j5375.
Larsson SC1,2, Traylor M2, Malik R3, Dichgans M3,4,5, Burgess S6,7, Markus HS2; CoSTREAM Consortium, on behalf of the International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project.
- Genes which reduce blood-level vitamin D increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease – Dec 2016
- Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D receptor gene – 2012
vitamin D receptor limits the amount of vitamin D actually getting to cells
- Alzheimer’s (apoE4) may require more than Omega-3 - May 2017
- Cognition of Alzheimer’s patients improved by daily 4,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Jan 2015
- Poor cognition 26 percent more likely if low Vitamin D (29 studies) – meta-analysis July 2017
- Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's ,Dementia, and ALS - review Nov 2017
- VitaminDWiki pages containing COFFEE or CAFFINE in title 4 as of Sept 2021
Overview Alzheimer's-Cognition and Vitamin D has the following summary
- FACT: Cognitive decline is 19X more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Dementia is associated with low vitamin D levels.
- FACT: Alzheimer’s Dementia 2.3X more likely in elderly if low vitamin D – Dec 2022
- FACT: Dementia is associated with low vitamin D - many studies
- FACT: Alzheimer's Disease is 4X less likely if high vitamin D
- FACT: Every single risk factor listed for Alzheimer's Disease is also a risk factor for low vitamin D levels
- FACT: Elderly cognition gets worse as the elderly vitamin D levels get even lower (while in senior homes)
- OBSERVATION: Reports of increased vitamin D levels result in improved cognition
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D receptor gene – 2012
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer's Disease has been seen to halt when vitamin D was added.
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s is associated with all 7 of the genes which restrict vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 39 vitamin D and Alz. or Cognition intervention trials as of Sept 2018
- OBSERVATION: 2 Meta-analysis in 2012 agreed that Alzheimer's Disease. associated with low vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 50X increase in Alzheimer's while decrease in vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Vitamin D reduces Alzheimer’s disease in 11 ways
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s cognition improved by 4,000 IU of vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Plaque removed in mice by equiv. of 14,000 IU daily
- OBSERVATION: DDT (which decreases Vit D) increases risk of Alzheimer's by up to 3.8X
- FACT: Vitamin D is extremely low cost and has very very few side effects
- CONCLUSION: Everyone concerned about cognitive decline or Alzheimer's Disease should take vitamin D
- PREDICTION: By 2024 Omega-3 and high dose Vitamin D will be found to reverse Alzheimer's in humans
- As of 2018 that combination has worked well with Multiple Sclerosis, Sleep, and Cluster Headaches
There are 12+ Alzheimer’s meta-analyses in VitaminDWiki
There are 84+ Alzheimer’s studies in VitaminDWiki
Dementia is associated with low vitamin D - many studies 50+
48 studies in both categories Cognitive and Omega-3 see below
The End of Alzheimer's - if custom adjust Vitamin D, B-12, Iron, Omega-3, etc.
Customizing the types of treatment to the individual results in reversing Alzheimer's
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
OBJECTIVE: To determine which potentially modifiable risk factors, including socioeconomic, lifestyle/dietary, cardiometabolic, and inflammatory factors, are associated with Alzheimer's disease.
DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study using genetic variants associated with the modifiable risk factors as instrumental variables.
SETTING: International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project.
PARTICIPANTS: 17 008 cases of Alzheimer's disease and 37 154 controls.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio of Alzheimer's per genetically predicted increase in each modifiable risk factor estimated with Mendelian randomisation analysis.
RESULTS: This study included analyses of 24 potentially modifiable risk factors. A Bonferroni corrected threshold of P=0.002 was considered to be significant, and P<0.05 was considered suggestive of evidence for a potential association. Genetically predicted educational attainment was significantly associated with Alzheimer's. The odds ratios were 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.93; P=2.4×10-6) per year of education completed and 0.74 (0.63 to 0.86; P=8.0×10-5) per unit increase in log odds of having completed college/university. The correlated trait intelligence had a suggestive association with Alzheimer's (per genetically predicted 1 SD higher intelligence: 0.73, 0.57 to 0.93; P=0.01). There was suggestive evidence for potential associations between genetically predicted higher quantity of smoking (per 10 cigarettes a day: 0.69, 0.49 to 0.99; P=0.04) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (per 20% higher levels: 0.92, 0.85 to 0.98; P=0.01) and lower odds of Alzheimer's and between higher coffee consumption (per one cup a day: 1.26, 1.05 to 1.51; P=0.01) and higher odds of Alzheimer's. Genetically predicted alcohol consumption, serum folate, serum vitamin B12, homocysteine, cardiometabolic factors, and C reactive protein were not associated with Alzheimer's disease.
CONCLUSION: These results provide support that higher educational attainment is associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease.
PMID: 29212772Alzheimer's disease – less risk if smarter, higher vitamin D, better genes or less coffee – Dec 2017
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