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Journal on vitamins and hormones has several papers on vitamin D – 2011

Vitamin D regulation of immune function

Vitam Horm. 2011;86:1-21.
Bikle DD.

Although the best known actions of vitamin D involve its regulation of bone mineral homeostasis, vitamin D exerts its influence on many physiologic processes. One of these processes is the immune system. Both the adaptive and innate immune systems are impacted by the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)(2)D. These observations have important implications for understanding the predisposition of individuals with vitamin D deficiency to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis as well as to autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus and multiple sclerosis. However, depending on the disease process not all actions of vitamin D may be beneficial.

In this review, I examine the regulation by 1,25(OH)(2)D of immune function, then assess the evidence implicating vitamin D deficiency in human disease resulting from immune dysfunction.
PMID: 21419265


Vitam Horm. 2011;86:367-77.

Vitamin d and inflammatory bowel disease.

Ardizzone S, Cassinotti A, Bevilacqua M, Clerici M, Porro GB.
Department of Gastroenterology, "L. Sacco" University Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic relapsing-remitting inflammatory conditions of uncertain origin affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Much effort has recently been made both in defining the mechanisms underlying the development of IBD, and in broadening the spectrum of effective treatment. Substantial progress has been made in characterising immune-cell populations and inflammatory mediators in IBD. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), the bioactive form of Vitamin D(3), besides having well-known control findings of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, bone formation and mineralization, also has a role in the maintenance of immune- omeostasis. The immune-regulatory role of vitamin D affects both the innate and adaptive immune system contributing to the immune-tolerance of self-structures. Impaired vitamin D supply/regulation, amongst other factors, leads to the development of autoimmune processes in animal models of various autoimmune diseases, including IBD. The administration of vitamin D in these animals leads to improvement of immune-mediated symptoms. Future studies now need to focus on the potential of vitamin D and its derivatives as therapeutic adjuncts in the treatment of IBD.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Vitam Horm. 2011;86:23-62.

Vitamin d and innate and adaptive immunity.

Hewison M.

In the last 5 years there has been renewed interest in the health benefits of vitamin D. A central feature of this revival has been new information concerning the nonclassical effects of vitamin D. In particular, studies of the interaction between vitamin D and the immune system have highlighted the importance of localized conversion of precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) as a mechanism for maintaining antibacterial activity in humans. The clinical relevance of this has been endorsed by increasing evidence of suboptimal 25OHD status in populations across the globe. Collectively these observations support the hypothesis that vitamin D insufficiency may lead to dysregulation of human immune responses and may therefore be an underlying cause of infectious disease and immune disorders.

The current review describes the key mechanisms associated with vitamin D metabolism and signaling for both innate immune (antimicrobial activity and antigen presentation) and adaptive immune (T and B lymphocyte function) responses. These include coordinated actions of the vitamin D-activating enzyme, 1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in mediating intracrine and paracrine actions of vitamin D. Finally, the review will consider the role of immunomodulatory vitamin D in human health, with specific emphasis on infectious and autoimmune disease.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21419266


Vitam Horm. 2011;86:379-99.

Vitamin d deficiency and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a vicious circle.

Janssens W, Mathieu C, Boonen S, Decramer M.
Respiratory Division, University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, Leuven, Belgium.

Vitamin D and vitamin D deficiency strongly interact with different pathogenic mechanisms in COPD. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is particularly high in COPD patients, increases with the severity of COPD, and is closely associated with osteoporosis prevalence. Adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation in COPD patients with documented deficiencies reduces the risk for falling and osteoporotic fractures, may indirectly reduce morbidity, and may potentially prevent the further deterioration of pulmonary function. Apart from the proven beneficial effects of vitamin D supplements on bone and muscle tissue, many epidemiological studies have putatively linked vitamin D deficiency with a higher risk for cardiovascular, inflammatory and infectious diseases, and cancer, diseases known to be associated with and to contribute significantly to the phenotypic presentation of COPD patients. Different animal and human studies have provided considerable evidence on how vitamin D may affect these processes.

The burning question in COPD is whether prevention of vitamin D deficiency or adequate supplementation may reverse the natural course of the disease.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21419281


Vitam Horm. 2011;86:261-86.

Vitamin d deficiency and connective tissue disease.

Zold E, Barta Z, Bodolay E.

Recently, the evidence linking vitamin D status as a potential environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence continues to accumulate. Beyond that the traditional known metabolic activities, vitamin D has been shown to modulate the immune system and has anti-inflammatory properties. The immune-regulatory role of vitamin D affects both the innate and adaptive immune responses contributing to the immune-tolerance of self-structures. Vitamin D deficiency skews the immunologic response towards loss of tolerance. Serum levels of vitamin D have been found to be significantly lower in several autoimmune or immune-mediated diseases than in the healthy population. Experimental animal models and clinical studies show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists can either prevent or suppress symptoms of type 1 diabetes, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erthyematosus and inflammatory bowel disease. The heading aims at reviewing the complex immune-regulatory role of vitamin D from the cellular and humoral level through animal models of autoimmune rheumatic diseases and representing the known contribution of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases. Increased vitamin D intakes might reduce the incidence and severity of autoimmune disorders besides reducing the rate of osteoporotic bone fracture.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21419275


Vitam Horm. 2011;86:239-60.

Maternal vitamin d during pregnancy and its relation to immune-mediated diseases in the offspring.

Maijaliisa E, Bright NI, Heli VT.
Division of Nutrition, Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is fairly common in many parts of the world.

However, currently there is no consensus on the optimal vitamin D intake during pregnancy.

Vitamin D is known to be of great importance for the homeostatic functions within the immune system. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy may therefore affect the developing immune system of the fetus, thus contributing to the later development of immune-mediated diseases. This chapter introduces the basics of vitamin D during pregnancy and discusses the role of maternal vitamin D intake in the development of asthma, allergic diseases, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and infections in the offspring. So far, the strongest observational evidence underlines the potential of maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy to influence the likelihood of asthma and allergic outcomes in the offspring. Somewhat conflicting findings imply that there might be critical time windows of exposure to adequate vitamin D levels during pregnancy. More research is needed in order to fully understand the contribution of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy to the progress of immune-mediated diseases.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21419274


Vitam Horm. 2011;86:217-37.

Vitamin d effects on lung immunity and respiratory diseases.

Hansdottir S, Monick MM.

Our understanding of vitamin D metabolism and biological effects has grown exponentially in recent years and it has become clear that vitamin D has extensive immunomodulatory effects. The active vitamin D generating enzyme, 1?-hydroxylase, is expressed by the airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes indicating that active vitamin D can be produced locally within the lungs. Vitamin D generated in tissues is responsible for many of the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D. The effects of vitamin D within the lungs include increased secretion of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, decreased chemokine production, inhibition of dendritic cell activation, and alteration of T-cell activation. These cellular effects are important for host responses against infection and the development of allergic lung diseases like asthma. Epidemiological studies do suggest that vitamin D deficiency predisposes to viral respiratory tract infections and mycobacterial infections and that vitamin D may play a role in the development and treatment of asthma. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials are lacking but ongoing.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID: 21419273
See full study in VitaminDWiki Vitamin D effects on lung immunity and respiratory diseases – 2011


Vitam Horm. 2011;86:327-51.

Vitamin d endocrine system and the immune response in rheumatic diseases.

Cutolo M, Plebani M, Shoenfeld Y, Adorini L, Tincani A.
Rheumatology, Research Laboratories and Academic Unit of Clinical Rheumatology, Postgraduate Academic School of Rheumatology, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

Epidemiological evidence indicates a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. The presence of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) in the cells of the immune system and the fact that several of these cells produce the vitamin D hormone suggested that vitamin D could have immunoregulatory properties, and now potent immunomodulatory activities on dendritic cells, Th1 and Th17 cells, as well as B cells have been confirmed. Serum levels of vitamin D have been found to be significantly lower in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, and type-1 diabetes mellitus than in the healthy population. In addition, it was also found that lower levels of vitamin D were associated with higher disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Promising clinical results together with evidence for the regulation of multiple immunomodulatory mechanisms by VDR agonists represent a sound basis for further exploration of their potential in the treatment of rheumatic autoimmune disorders.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21419278


All of the papers in the issue

Chapter one - Vitamin D Regulation of Immune Function, Pages 1-21
Daniel D. Bikle, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter two - Vitamin D and Innate and Adaptive Immunity pages 23-62
Martin Hewison, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter three - Dendritic Cells Modified by Vitamin D: Future Immunotherapy for Autoimmune Diseases pages 63-82
Ayako Wakatsuki Pedersen, Mogens Helweg Claesson, Mai-Britt Zocca, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter four - Retinoic Acid, Immunity, and Inflammation pages 83-101
Chang H. Kim, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter five - Vitamin A and Retinoic Acid in the Regulation of B-Cell Development and Antibody Production pages 103-126
A. Catharine Ross, Qiuyan Chen, Yifan Ma, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter Six - Retinoic Acid Production by Intestinal Dendritic Cells pages 127-152
Makoto Iwata, Aya Yokota, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter seven - Immune Regulator Vitamin A and T Cell Death pages 153-178
Nikolai Engedal, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter eight - Vitamin E and Immunity pages 179-215
Didem Pekmezci, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter Nine - Vitamin D Effects on Lung Immunity and Respiratory Diseases pages 217-237
Sif Hansdottir, Martha M. Monick, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter Ten - Maternal Vitamin D During Pregnancy and Its Relation to Immune-Mediated Diseases in the Offspring pages 239-260
M. Erkkola, B.I. Nwaru, H.T. Viljakainen, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter Eleven - Vitamin D Deficiency and Connective Tissue Disease pages 261-286
Eva Zold, Zsolt Barta, Edit Bodolay, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter twelve - Key Roles of Vitamins A, C, and E in Aflatoxin B1-Induced Oxidative Stress pages 287-305
Lokman Alpsoy, Mehmet Emir Yalvac, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter thirteen - Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, and Cathelicidin in the Treatment of Tuberculosis pages 307-325
P. Selvaraj, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter fourteen - Vitamin D Endocrine System and the Immune Response in Rheumatic Diseases pages 327-351
Maurizio Cutolo, M. Plebani, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Luciano Adorini, Angela Tincani, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter fifteen - l-Carnitine and Intestinal Inflammation pages 353-366
Geneviève Fortin, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter sixteen - Vitamin D and Inflammatory Bowel Disease pages 367-377
Sandro Ardizzone, Andrea Cassinotti, Maurizio Bevilacqua, Mario Clerici, Gabriele Bianchi Porro, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter seventeen - Vitamin D Deficiency and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Vicious Circle pages 379-399
Wim Janssens, Chantal Mathieu, Steven Boonen, Marc Decramer, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter eighteen - Vitamin D as a T-cell Modulator in Multiple Sclerosis pages 401-428
Joost Smolders, Jan Damoiseaux, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50

Chapter Nineteen - Vitamin D in Solid Organ Transplantation with Special Emphasis on Kidney Transplantation pages 429-468
Ursula Thiem, Kyra Borchhardt, Abstract Purchase PDF - $31.50


See also VitaminDWiki

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