Does Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increase the Risk of Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 301; doi:10.3390/nu8050301 (registering DOI)
Lu-Lu Qin 1,2, Fang-Guo Lu 1, Sheng-Hui Yang 1, Hui-Lan Xu 2 and Bang-An Luo 3,*
1 Department of Prevention Medicine and Pathogenic Biology, Medical School, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China
2 Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China
3 Department of Mental Health, Brain Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha 410007, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
There are disagreements among researchers about the association between vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate this association. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library through August 2015 with the following keywords: “vitamin D” or “cholecalciferol” or “25-hydroxyvitamin D” or “25(OH)D” in combination with “premature birth” or “preterm birth” or “PTB” or “preterm delivery” or “PTD” or “prematurity”.
Our meta-analysis of 10 studies included 10,098 participants and found that pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency (maternal serum 25 (OH) D levels < 20 ng/mL) experienced a significantly increased risk of PTB (odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, 95% confidence intervals(CI): 1.16, 1.45) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 25%, p = 0.21).
Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In the subgroup analyses, we found that heterogeneity was obvious in prospective cohort studies (I2 = 60%, p = 0.06). In conclusion, pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy have an increasing risk of PTB.
- Vitamin D Webinar - cost of pre-term birth etc- Baggerly Nov 2013
- Preterm birth rate reduced 57 percent by Vitamin D – Nov 2015
- Pregnancy and Vitamin D – meta-analysis April 2015
- Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D
- Omega-3 helps pregnancy in many ways: preterm 26 percent less likely etc – review July 2012
- Magnesium Reduces pre-term births 3 X, not just 0.3X