JAMA Neurol. 2015;72(11):1295-1303. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.2115. Text Size: A A A
Joshua W. Miller, PhD1,2; Danielle J. Harvey, PhD3; Laurel A. Beckett, PhD3; Ralph Green, MD, PhD2; Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, PhD4; Bruce R. Reed, PhD4; John M. Olichney, MD4; Dan M. Mungas, PhD4; Charles DeCarli, MD4
Mean age 76
|Mild cognitive impairment||20ng|
See also VitaminDWiki
- Alzheimers-Cognition - Overview has the following summary
- FACT: Cognitive decline is 19X more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Dementia is associated with low vitamin D levels.
- FACT: Alzheimer’s 21 % more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Alzheimer's Disease is 4X less likely if less likely if high vitamin D
- FACT: Every single risk factor listed for Alzheimer's Disease is also a risk factor for low vitamin D levels
- FACT: Elderly cognition gets worse as the elderly vitamin D levels get even lower (while in senior homes)
- OBSERVATION: Reports of increased vitamin D levels result in improved cognition
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D receptor gene – 2012
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer's Disease has been seen to halt when vitamin D was added.
- OBSERVATION: 39 vitamin D and Alz. or Cognition lntervenion trials as of Sept 2018
- OBSERVATION: 2 Meta-analysis in 2012 agreed that Alzheimer's Disease. associated with low vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 50X increase in Alzheimer's while decrease in vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Vitamin D reduces Alzheimer’s disease in 11 ways
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s cognition improved by 4,000 IU of vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Plaque removed in mice by equiv. of 14,000 IU daily
- FACT: Vitamin D is extremely low cost and has very very few side effects
- CONCLUSION: Everyone concerned about cognitive decline or Alzheimer's Disease should take vitamin D
- PREDICTION: By 2021 Magnesium, Omega-3 and high dose Vitamin D will be found to reverse Alzheimer's in humans
- As of 2018 that combination has worked well with Multiple Sclerosis, Sleep, and Cluster Headaches
- All items in category Cognition and vitamin D
Objective To assess associations between VitD status and trajectories of change in subdomains of cognitive function in a cohort of ethnically diverse older adults.
Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal multiethnic cohort study of 382 participants in an outpatient clinic enrolled between February 2002 and August 2010 with baseline assessment and yearly follow-up visits. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured, with VitD status defined as the following: deficient, less than 12 ng/mL (to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 2.496); insufficient, 12 to less than 20 ng/mL; adequate, 20 to less than 50 ng/mL; or high, 50 ng/mL or higher. Subdomains of cognitive function were assessed using the Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales. Associations were evaluated between 25-OHD levels (as continuous and categorical [deficient, insufficient, or adequate]) and trajectories of cognitive decline.
Main Outcomes and Measures Serum 25-OHD levels, cognitive function, and associations between 25-OHD levels and trajectories of cognitive decline.
Results Participants (N = 382 at baseline) had a mean (SD) age of 75.5 (7.0) years; 61.8% were women; and 41.4% were white, 29.6% African American, 25.1% Hispanic, and 3.9% other race/ethnicity. Diagnosis at enrollment included 17.5% with dementia, 32.7% with mild cognitive impairment, and 49.5% cognitively normal. The mean (SD) 25-OHD level was 19.2 (11.7) ng/mL, with 26.2% of participants being VitD deficient and 35.1% insufficient. The mean (SD) 25-OHD levels were significantly lower for African American and Hispanic participants compared with white participants (17.9 [15.8] and 17.2 [8.4] vs 21.7 [10.0] ng/mL, respectively; P < .001 for both). The mean (SD) 25-OHD levels were similarly lower in the dementia group compared with the mild cognitive impairment and cognitively normal groups (16.2 [9.4] vs 20.0 [10.3] and 19.7 [13.1] ng/mL, respectively; P = .006). The mean (SD) follow-up was 4.8 (2.5) years.
Rates of decline in episodic memory and executive function among VitD-deficient (episodic memory: β = −0.04 [SE = 0.02], P = .049; executive function: β = −0.05 [SE = 0.02], P = .01) and VitD-insufficient (episodic memory: β = −0.06 [SE = 0.02], P < .001; executive function: β = −0.04 [SE = 0.02], P = .008) participants were greater than those with adequate status after controlling for age, sex, education, ethnicity, body mass index, season of blood draw, vascular risk, and apolipoprotein E4 genotype. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with decline in semantic memory or visuospatial ability. Exclusion of participants with dementia did not substantially affect the associations between VitD status and rates of cognitive decline.
Conclusions and Relevance Low VitD status was associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function domains in ethnically diverse older adults, including African American and Hispanic individuals who exhibited a high prevalence of VitD insufficiency or deficiency. It remains to be determined whether VitD supplementation slows cognitive decline.