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Coronaviruses attach to cells via ACE2, Vitamin D might reduce ACE2

Problems with this page:   ACE2 files probably at bottom of this page

Fact All Coronavirus attach to ACE2 enzyme in human cells
Suspected Vitamin D reduces ACE2 enzyme
Fact All previous human Coronavirus are fought by Vitamin D
Hypothesis Vitamin D will also fight the new form of Coronavirus, COVID-19


CVD, Diabetes, and Hypertension All share the following
1) Disease associated wigth big increase in COVD-19 death
   see COVID-19 deaths 4 to 7 X more likely if Diabetic, Hypertensive, or CVD - meta-analysis March 2020
2) Diaease appears to be treated with ACE inhibiters

High levels of ACE2 result in better attachment by all coronaviruses (this page)
It appears that the drugs taken for the diseases are the cause the increase death rate

Vitamin D normalizes the ACE2, which is the attachment point for COVID-19 virus Dr. Patrick Video April 12

  • Her video reviews about a dozen publications. Her description of vitamin D starts at 24:52

Perhaps 4X more likely to die of COVID-19 if take ACE inhibitors March 2020

Perhaps 4X more likely to die of COVID-19 if take ACE inhibitors (reduce blood pressure) - March 2020

SARS and the new coronavirus target the same cellular lock to infect cells

  • “When cells had the ACE2 protein on their surface, the virus was able to break into them.”
  • *PDF may be available at the bottom of this page

Can a Database of Animal Viruses Help Predict the Next Pandemic?

Wired Magazine Feb 12 2020
Several studies confirmed that Wuhan Coronovirus uses ACE2 connection

  • "... January 23, a research group from Wuhan’s Institute of Virology reported they had tested live samples of the new virus against human cell lines expressing ACE2 proteins and those without ACE2. It could only infect the ones that carried the receptor."

Vitamin D 3rd edition - 2011

Chapter 40 - Vitamin D and the Renin-Angiotensin System. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-381978-9.10040-X
'*PDF may be available at the bottom of this page''

Search Google Scholar for ACE2 and "Vitamin D" 1080 studies as of March 2020

  • Vitamin D Depletion Aggravates Hypertension and Target‐Organ Damage - Feb 2017, rats, FREE PDF https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.114.001417
    • :Our data suggest that even short‐term severe vitamin D deficiency may directly promote hypertension and impacts on renin‐angiotensin system components that could contribute to target‐organ damage. "

Wonder if the other human coronaviruses also connect to cells via ACE2

1) Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
2) Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
3) Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
4) Human coronavirus HKU1
Entry of Human Coronavirus NL63 Into the Cell - Jan 2018
*PDF may be available at the bottom of this page

Vitamin D alleviates lipopolysaccharide‑induced acute lung injury via regulation of the renin‑angiotensin system - 2017

  • From Discussion: "The mRNA expression levels of ACE and ACE2 in NT, LPS and LPS + calcitriol-treated lung tissues were also determined, and the results demonstrated that LPS increased ACE expression and decreased ACE2 levels compared with the NT group. Calcitriol treatment inhibited the effects of LPS on ACE and ACE2 mRNA expression "
  • *PDF may be available at the bottom of this page


Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus -2003

  • *PDF may be available at the bottom of this page

Archive of preprints for Medical Studies (which have NOT been peer reviewed) - on Cononavirus and ACE2

73 papers on Coronavirus as of Feb 19, 2020
14 concerned Coronavirus AND ACE2 note that the date of the publication is embedded in the URL

Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan 2019-nCoV, in the nasal tissue No such attachment on this page https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.11.20022228v2
Laboratory diagnosis and monitoring the viral shedding of 2019-nCoV infections https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.11.20021493v1
ACE2 Expression in Kidney and Testis May Cause Kidney and Testis Damage After 2019-nCoV Infection https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.12.20022418v1
Tobacco-use disparity in gene expression of ACE2, the receptor of 2019-nCov
Smokers have much more ACE2 than non-smokers, which may account for Chinese males dying 2X more than Chinese females (who do not smoke)
Assessing the plausibility of subcritical transmission of 2019-nCoV in the United States https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.08.20021311v1
Diarrhea may be underestimated: a missing link in 2019 novel coronavirus https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.03.20020289v1

42 minute YouTube video concerning Vitamin D, Coronavirus and ACE2

Slides are in German, but they are described by the author in English
ACE2 controls blood pressure.
When the Coronavirus takes over the ACE2, the blood pressure rises (in the lungs)
Video also overviews many previous Vitamin D studies on respiratory viruses
Death from pulmonary edema after infection with the coronavirus is due to its use of the ACE2 protein as virus receptor- Feb 14, 2020

Analyzed gene associations in Coronavirus publications - ACE2 looks interesting - Feb 2020

TWIRLS, an automated topic-wise inference method based on massive literature, suggests a possible mechanism via ACE2 for the pathological changes in the human host after coronavirus infection - pre-print attached to this page

  • *PDF may be available at the bottom of this page

  • ACE2 in Wikipedia
    • Two separate sets of researchers have asserted that the entry point is the same for the Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) (Feb 14)

COVID-19 virus attached via ACE2, Vitamin D might help - citizen scientist - April 2020

 Download 6 page PDF from VitaminDWiki

One of the 6 pages

See also

Studies seem to indicate that a more-acid environment is associated with better Coronavirus attachment

  • The Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Undergoes Direct Low-pH-Dependent Fusion Activation during Entry into Host Cells - 2006
  • Mechanisms of Coronavirus Cell Entry Mediated by the Viral Spike Protein - 2012
  • Fusion of Enveloped Viruses in Endosomes - 2016
  • The avian coronavirus spike protein - 2014
  • Alteration of cell junctions during viral infection - 2020

ALL PDFs are at the bottom of this page
There "might" be a reason to not take ascorbic ACID, but nothing to suspect any intraction with Vitamin D

AI tool predicts COVID-19 test results (ignores Vitamin D, severity associated with HT) – March 2020 has


Updates April and May 2020

short URL = https://is.gd/CoronaACE2

Created by admin. Last Modification: Thursday May 21, 2020 12:09:14 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 73)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
13733 Colllier page 2.jpg admin 17 Apr, 2020 18:01 234.53 Kb 7397
13732 D3 & Coronavirus COVID-19_compressed.pdf PDF 2020 admin 17 Apr, 2020 17:54 1.10 Mb 561
13649 ACE2 abstracts.docx admin 18 Mar, 2020 13:24 50.57 Kb 339
13648 ACE2 vit D lin2016.pdf admin 18 Mar, 2020 13:23 1.88 Mb 412
13647 ACE2 vit D Xu.pdf admin 18 Mar, 2020 13:22 1.08 Mb 468
13646 ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan.pdf admin 18 Mar, 2020 13:22 672.25 Kb 330
13620 ACE2 LPS.jpg admin 12 Mar, 2020 22:02 35.95 Kb 15077
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