Vitamin D and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in People With Prediabetes : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data From 3 Randomized Clinical Trials
Ann Intern Med. 2023 Mar;176(3):355-363. doi: 10.7326/M22-3018 PDF is behind a paywall
Anastassios G Pittas 1, Tetsuya Kawahara 2, Rolf Jorde 3, Bess Dawson-Hughes 4, Ellen M Vickery 1, Edith Angellotti 5, Jason Nelson 1, Thomas A Trikalinos 6, Ethan M Balk 6
Background: The role of vitamin D in people who are at risk for type 2 diabetes remains unclear.
Purpose: To evaluate whether administration of vitamin D decreases risk for diabetes among people with prediabetes.
Data sources: PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov from database inception through 9 December 2022.
Study selection: Eligible trials that were specifically designed and conducted to test the effects of oral vitamin D versus placebo on new-onset diabetes in adults with prediabetes.
Data extraction: The primary outcome was time to event for new-onset diabetes. Secondary outcomes were regression to normal glucose regulation and adverse events. Prespecified analyses (both unadjusted and adjusted for key baseline variables) were conducted according to the intention-to-treat principle.
Data synthesis: Three randomized trials were included, which tested cholecalciferol, 20 000 IU (500 mcg) weekly; cholecalciferol, 4000 IU (100 mcg) daily; or eldecalcitol, 0.75 mcg daily, versus matching placebos. Trials were at low risk of bias.
Vitamin D reduced risk for diabetes by 15% (hazard ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75 to 0.96]) in adjusted analyses, with a 3-year absolute risk reduction of 3.3% (CI, 0.6% to 6.0%). The effect of vitamin D did not differ in prespecified subgroups.
Among participants assigned to the vitamin D group who maintained an intratrial mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 125 nmol/L (≥50 ng/mL) compared with 50 to 74 nmol/L (20 to 29 ng/mL) during follow-up, cholecalciferol reduced risk for diabetes by 76% (hazard ratio, 0.24 [CI, 0.16 to 0.36]), with a 3-year absolute risk reduction of 18.1% (CI, 11.7% to 24.6%).
Vitamin D increased the likelihood of regression to normal glucose regulation by 30% (rate ratio, 1.30 [CI, 1.16 to 1.46]).
There was no evidence of difference in the rate ratios for adverse events
- (kidney stones: 1.17 [CI, 0.69 to 1.99];
- hypercalcemia: 2.34 [CI, 0.83 to 6.66];
- hypercalciuria: 1.65 [CI, 0.83 to 3.28];
- death: 0.85 [CI, 0.31 to 2.36]).
Limitations: Studies of people with prediabetes do not apply to the general population. Trials may not have been powered for safety outcomes.
Conclusion: In adults with prediabetes, vitamin D was effective in decreasing risk for diabetes.
Primary funding source: None. (PROSPERO: CRD42020163522).
VitaminDWiki – Overview Diabetes and vitamin D contains
- Diabetes is 5X more frequent far from the equator
- Children getting 2,000 IU of vitamin D are 8X less likely to get Type 1 diabetes
- Obese people get less sun / Vitamin D - and also vitamin D gets lost in fat
- Sedentary people get less sun / Vitamin D
- Worldwide Diabetes increase has been concurrent with vitamin D decrease and air conditioning
- Elderly get 4X less vitamin D from the same amount of sun
Elderly also spend less time outdoors and have more clothes on
- All items in category Diabetes and Vitamin D
529 items: both Type 1 and Type 2
Vitamin D appears to both prevent and treat diabetes
- Appears that >2,000 IU will Prevent
- Appears that >4,000 IU will Treat , but not cure
- 90% less T2 Diabetes in the group having lots of Vitamin D
- Appears that Magnesium helps both Prevention and Treatment
- Many diabetics would be better treated if Gut-Friendly Vitamin D were used
Number of articles in both categories of Diabetes and:
'This list is automatically updated''
- Dark Skin
24 ; Intervention 56 ; Meta-analysis 38 ; Obesity 34 ; Pregnancy 43 ; T1 (child) 39 ; Omega-3 11 ; Vitamin D Receptor 23 ; Genetics 12 ; Magnesium 27 Click here to see details
Some Diabetes studies
- Type 2 Diabetes treated by Vitamin D (often 50,000 IU weekly) – meta-analysis July 2023
- Diabetic inflammation synergistically decreased by Vitamin D and exercise – RCT June 2022
- Incidence of Type-2 Diabetes increased 3X in 30 years (by the way, Vitamin D helps) – July 2022
- Vitamin d treats Type II Diabetes in many ways (14 article review) - Sept 2021
- T2 Diabetes 30 percent more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis of 47 studies – July 2021
- Diabetes helped somewhat by weekly 50,000 IU of vitamin D (5 ways to improve) – RCT Aug 2021
50 ng of Vitamin D fights Diabetes
- Saudi study defines normal Vitamin D level to be 50 to 70 ng (diabetes, etc.) - June 2020
- Diabetes 5X less likely if more than 50 ng of Vitamin D – April 2018
- T1 Diabetes 3X lower risk if high vitamin D (over 40 ng) – Meta-analysis Nov 2020
- Type 1 Diabetes is prevented and treated by Vitamin D – review of 16 studies – Sept 2019
- Type 1 Diabetes prevention with Vitamin D and Omega-3 – Symposium April 2019
- 4X reduction in prediabetes progressing to T2D if more than 50 ng of vitamin D – RCT March 2023
- Prediabetes reduced by weekly 60,000 IU of Vitamin D – RCT Jan 2021
- Prediabetes 1.5 X more likely to go away if take Vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2020
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Magnesium - many studies
- Step back to 1994. Suppose an epidemic struck the United States, causing blindness, kidney failure, and leg amputations in steadily increasing numbers.
Suppose that in less than a decade's time, the epidemic had victimized one out of every eight people
That epidemic is real, and its name is diabetes, now the nation's sixth leading cause of death.
Chart from the web (2018?)
VitaminDWiki – Diabetes category contains
529 items In Diabetes category 33+ Prediabetes studies 64+ Type 1 Diabetes studies Autoimmune category listing has 189 items along with related searches4X reduction in prediabetes progressing to T2D if more than 50 ng of vitamin D – RCT March 2023 315 visitors, last modified 01 May, 2023,This page is in the following categories (# of items in each category)