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Small for gestational age and insulin at age 6 – Sept 2012

Vitamin D Levels and Insulin Resistance in Children Born with Severe Growth Restriction.

Horm Metab Res. 2012 Sep 18.
Giapros VI, Challa AS, Cholevas VL, Evagelidou EN, Bairaktari ET, Andronikou SK.
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

This study was designed to examine differences in serum 25(OH)D levels between small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) prepubertal children in correlation with birth weight and indices of insulin resistance and ?-cell function.

Sixty-five nonobese children were examined at age 5-7.5 years; 27 born SGA and 38 matched AGA. Body weight, height, BMI, and waist circumference were recorded and fasting serum levels of glucose, insulin, 25(OH)D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the ?-cell function index (HOMA-?%) were estimated.

The mean level of 25(OH)D was higher in the SGA group (26.2±10 vs. 17.2±7?ng/ml, p<0.01) but that of PTH was no different.

The insulin resistance and ?-cell function indices were higher in the SGA group: HOMA-IR 1.34±0.67 vs. 0.99±0.53, and HOMA-?% 135±56 vs. 97±60 in the SGA and AGA groups, respectively.

In the SGA group, 25(OH)D was correlated with HOMA-?% but not with HOMA-IR or insulin.

In multiple regression, in the total cohort 25(OH)D and HOMA-IR were independently negatively correlated with birth weight (?=?-?0.31, ?=?-?0.36, p<0.05) respectively.

In conclusion, at prepuberty severely in utero growth restricted children have increased birth weight dependent levels of 25(OH)D, which might exert a regulatory role on ?-cell function.

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

PMID: 22990991
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  • SGA is related to low vitamin D
  • This study ignored the obese children associated with SGA
  • This study did not consider the 2X higher death rate at birth for SGA
  • Strange: higher vitamin D levels in those who had been SGA – this is opposite of expectation

See also VitaminDWiki

See also Web

  • Pre-term births report USA-Today May 2012
    Of all births: US Blacks 17%, US whites 11%, Germany 9%, UK Canada, Australia 8%, France 7%, Japan 6%
    For 62 out of 65 countries, the rate of premature births has been increasing
  • Wikipedia on HOMA had the following table Sept 2012


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