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Slower cognitive decline if higher vitamin D (1500 adults, 5 years) – Feb 2018

Vitamin D Status and Intakes and Their Association with Cognitive Trajectory in A Longitudinal Study of Urban Adults.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Feb 1. doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-02462. [Epub ahead of print]
Beydoun MA1, Hossain S1, Fanelli-Kuczmarski MT2, Beydoun HA3, Canas JA4, Evans MK1, Zonderman AB1.
1 Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, NIA/NIH/IRP, Baltimore, MD.
2 Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
3 Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
4 Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.


CONTEXT:
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary and supplemental vitamin D may influence cognitive outcomes.

OBJECTIVES:
Sex/age-specific and race-specific associations of vitamin D status and intake were examined with longitudinal change in various cognitive domains in a large sample of ethnically and socio-economically diverse US urban adults.

DESIGN:
Two prospective waves of data from Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study were used. Setting: Baltimore City, MD, 2004-2013.

PARTICIPANTS:
U.S. adults aged 30-64y at baseline visit, length of follow-up between visits 1 (2004-2009) and 2 (2009-2013) with mean follow-up time ±SD: 4.64±0.93y. Final analytic sample sizes ranged from 1,231-1,803 participants with 1.5-2.0 visits/participant.

MAIN OUTCOME AND EXPOSURE MEASURES:
Cognitive performance was assessed using 11 test scores covering domains of global cognition, attention, learning/memory, executive function, visuo-spatial/visuo-construction ability, psychomotor speed and language/verbal. Serum 25(OH)D, vitamin D intake and use of supplements containing vitamin D were the key exposures.

RESULTS:
Based on multiple mixed-effects linear regression models, there was a consistent relationship between vitamin D status (overall) and supplemental intake (older women and African-Americans) with a slower rate of decline in the domain of verbal fluency. Higher dietary intake of vitamin D was linked to slower rate of decline in verbal memory among younger women, and a slower rate of decline in visual memory/visuo-constructive abilities among Whites. All other associations were inconsistent.

CONCLUSIONS:
Vitamin D status and intakes were inversely related to domain-specific cognitive decline in US urban adults. Larger population studies are needed to replicate our findings.

PMID: 29409006 DOI: 10.1210/jc.2017-02462

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