Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case–control study in six countries
BMJ Volume 4, Issue 1, http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272
Hyunju Kim1,2, Casey M Rebholz1,2, Sheila Hegde3, Christine LaFiura4, Madhunika Raghavan4, John F Lloyd5, Susan Cheng5 and Sara B Seidelmann6,7 Stamford Hospital, Greenwich, CT 06830, USA; smb88 at caa.columbia.edu
Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and country.
Model 2 additionally adjusted for specialty, smoking, and physical activity.
Model 3 additionally adjusted for body mass index and presence of a medical condition.
Note: Founder of VitaminDWiki has little expectation of COVID-19
- Take lots of Vitamin D (reduced COVID-19 in many RCT)
- Eat a plant-based diet - this study
- Take Omega-3
- Take Curcumin (reduced COVID-19 in RCT)
- Take Quercetin (reduced COVID-19 in RCT)
- Consume bitters - observed 10X increase in COVID if not taste bitter flavor
- Not a single case of multiple sclerosis in 15,000,000 people (plant-based diets)
- Half of Diabetics cured in 16 days by eating a plant-based diet – Dr. Greger Sept 2019
- Live 14 years longer with healthy lifestyle (2 years longer if good vitamin D) – Dr. Greger Oct 2019
Vitamin D Reduces COVID-19 risks
- If low vitamin D, 2.5X more likely enter hospital with COVID-19 (UK, 10 months) – June 17, 2021
- Severe COVID-19 3.5 more likely if low vitamin D (30 studies) – meta-analysis July 2021
Background Several studies have hypothesised that dietary habits may play an important role in COVID-19 infection, severity of symptoms, and duration of illness. However, no previous studies have investigated the association between dietary patterns and COVID-19.
Methods Healthcare workers (HCWs) from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA) with substantial exposure to COVID-19 patients completed a web-based survey from 17 July to 25 September 2020. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, dietary information, and COVID-19 outcomes. We used multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the association between self-reported diets and COVID-19 infection, severity, and duration.
Results There were 568 COVID-19 cases and 2316 controls. Among the 568 cases, 138 individuals had moderate-to-severe COVID-19 severity whereas 430 individuals had very mild to mild COVID-19 severity. After adjusting for important confounders, participants who reported following ‘plant-based diets’ and ‘plant-based diets or pescatarian diets’ had 73% (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.81) and 59% (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.99) lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 severity, respectively, compared with participants who did not follow these diets. Compared with participants who reported following ‘plant-based diets’, those who reported following ‘low carbohydrate, high protein diets’ had greater odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.13 to 13.24). No association was observed between self-reported diets and COVID-19 infection or duration.
Conclusion In six countries, plant-based diets or pescatarian diets were associated with lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. These dietary patterns may be considered for protection against severe COVID-19.