Perspective The role of UV radiation and vitamin D in the seasonality and outcomes of infectious disease
Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, DOI: 10.1039/C6PP00355A
Abhimanyu a and Anna K. Coussens ab anna.coussens at gmail.com
Some of the errors of this generally great diagram
It does not show that Vitamin D helps repair DNA damage Vitamin D protects DNA against UV skin damage – 5 studies 2012-2013
It shows that Vitamin D generates NO, whereas UVA generates NO
Immunity category starts with
see alsoVirus category listing has
Overview Influenza and vitamin D
Search for treg OR "t-cell" in VitaminDWiki 1440 items as of Jan 2020
141 VitaminDWiki pages contained "infection" in title (June 2021)
Search VitaminDWik for BACTERIA in title 25 items as of Aug 2019
Vitamin D and the Immune System – chapter Aug 2019
7X less risk of influenza if Vitamin D levels higher than 30 ng – Oct 2017
Common cold prevented and treated by Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea – review April 2018
Vitamin D improves T Cell immunity – RCT Feb 2016
13 titles in VitaminDWiki contained INNATE or ADAPTIVE as of July 2021
Increasing publications on vitamin D and Infection
- Health benefit of Sunlight is more than Vitamin D in the blood - many studies
- UV produces more than vitamin D – Aug 2011
- Ultraviolet Light in Human Health, Diseases and Environment - book 2017
- Vitamin D and Sun conference – Germany June 2017
- Many wavelengths of light provide health benefits, not just UV – March 2016
- Low UVB (thus low Vitamin D) is linked to many diseases – Grant Jan 2016
- Less sun means more disease -Grant, Holick, Cannell, et al Feb 2015
- Exposing some blood to Ultraviolet light has treated various health problems, then antibiotics came along – April 2016
More detailed chart
The seasonality of infectious disease outbreaks suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on disease risk. One of the major environmental factors that can affect this is solar radiation, primarily acting through ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and its subsequent control of vitamin D production. Here we show how UVR and vitamin D, which are modified by latitude and season, can affect host and pathogen fitness and relate them to the outcomes of bacterial, viral and vector-borne infections.
We conducted a thorough comparison of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of UVR and vitamin D on pathogen fitness and host immunity and related these to the effects observed in animal models and clinical trials to understand their independent and complementary effects on infectious disease outcome.
UVR and vitamin D share common pathways of innate immune activation primarily via antimicrobial peptide production, and adaptive immune suppression.
Whilst UVR can induce vitamin D-independent effects in the skin, such as the generation of photoproducts activating interferon signaling, vitamin D has a larger systemic effect due to its autocrine and paracrine modulation of cellular responses in a range of tissues.
However, the seasonal patterns in infectious disease prevalence are not solely driven by variation in UVR and vitamin D levels across latitudes.
Vector-borne pathogens show a strong seasonality of infection correlated to climatic conditions favoring their replication.
Conversely, pathogens, such as influenza A virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, have strong evidence to support their interaction with vitamin D.
Thus, UVR has both vitamin D-dependent and independent effects on infectious diseases; these effects vary depending on the pathogen of interest and the effects can be complementary or antagonistic.
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