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Low-energy fractures in children with low vitamin D - many studies

4.6 X more-likely for children to have low energy fracture if low Vitamin D - Feb 2023

Vitamin D level and low-energy fracture risk in children and adolescents: a population-based case-control study of 45 cases
J Pediatr Orthop B . 2023 Feb 8. doi: 10.1097/BPB.0000000000001061
Elio Assaf 1, Elisabeth Mohs 1, Franz-J Dally 1, Svetlana Hetjens 2, Sascha Gravius 1, Ali Darwich 1

The objective is to document the rate of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among children with low-energy fractures and compare it to fracture-free control group. We included all children under 15 years presenting to the emergency department with low-energy fractures; controls were children without history of fractures from the outpatient department. Conventional X-ray and laboratory blood tests were performed. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum level ≤20 ng/ml, and the mean values were compared through two-sample t-tests. The influence of vitamin D on the fractures was defined using Chi-square test, significance with P-value < 0.05. The relationships between variables and odds of fracture occurrence were examined using logistic regression models. The final sample included 37 cases (30 males, 7 females, 7.4 ± 3.7 years) and 70 control individuals (42 males, 28 females, 7.8 ± 4.6 years) without significant differences regarding age, sex, and month of inclusion.
Children with fractures had lower levels of vitamin D (21.87 ± 8.40 ng/ml vs. 25.89 ± 7.62 ng/ml) (P = 0.01).
Vitamin D played a protective role against low-energy fractures (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14; P = 0.02),
boys showed three times greater fracture risk than girls (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.12-8.07; P = 0.03).
Finally, vitamin D deficiency correlated with almost five times increased risk of pediatric low-energy fractures (OR, 4.63; 95% CI, 1.92-11.18; P = 0.001). This is the first MENA study establishing a relation between vitamin D deficiency and low-energy fractures among children and adolescents. The findings show the protective role of vitamin D on the pediatric bone and may help physicians preventing morbidity on children and costs on their families and the socioeconomic health system.

Total fractures in children NOT associated with low vitamin D - meta-analysis June 2021

Vitamin D level and fractures in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism volume 39, pages 851–857 (2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s00774-021-01238-x
References are online, Publisher charges $40 for the PDF
Chong Zheng, Hao Li, Shuai Rong, Liantao Liu, Kepei Zhen & Kewei Li

Suspect that this study looked at total of both low and high energy fractures

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between vitamin D levels and the risk of bone fractures in children and adolescents.

Materials and methods
PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were searched using subject and free words. The Newcastle–Ottawa scale form was used to assess literature quality. ReVman 5.2 and Stata 13.0 were used for statistical analyses. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD)/odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The heterogeneity test was conducted according to I2 and Q tests. Egger’s test was used to evaluate publication bias.

Thirteen studies (3943 participants ≤ 18 years old) were included, and the quality of the literature was acceptable. Regarding the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level in the random effects model, the MD = − 0.12 ng/mL (95% CI: −1.93, 1.69), I2 = 83%, and P < 0.00001, indicating large heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to vitamin D supplementation and 25OHD level, the sources of heterogeneity were not found. Regarding the proportion of subjects with vitamin D deficiency in the random effects model, OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.79), I2 = 79%, and P < 0.0001. By sensitivity analysis, after removing Al-Daghri’s study, OR = 1.22 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.56), I2 = 0%, and P = 0.64.

There is no relationship between vitamin D level and the risk of bone fractures in children and adolescents.

Children 60% less likely to have bone fractures if daily 2,800 IU of Vitamin D while pregnant - RCT followup Jan 2022

High-dose vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and 25(OH)D sufficiency in childhood reduce the risk of fractures and improve bone mineralization in childhood: Follow-up of a randomized clinical trial
eClinicalMedicine Volume 43, January 2022, 101254 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101254

Exposure to vitamin D in early life has been associated with improved bone mineralization, but no studies have investigated the combined effect of pregnancy supplementation and childhood 25(OH)D concentrations on bone health.

We analyzed the effect of serum 25(OH)D concentrations at age 6 months and 6 years and the combined effect with prenatal high-dose vitamin D (2800 vs. 400 IU/day) on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at age 3 and 6 years and longitudinal risk of fractures in a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 (COPSAC2010) mother-child cohort with enrollment from March 4, 2009, to November 17, 2010, and clinical follow-up until January 31, 2019 (NCT00856947). All participants randomized to intervention and with complete data were included in the analyses.

At age 6 months, serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured in 93% (n = 541) of 584 children. Children with sufficient (≥ 75 nmol/l) vs. insufficient (< 75 nmol/l) concentrations did not have lower risk of fractures: incidence rate ratio (95% CI); 0.64 (0.37;1.11), p = 0.11.
However, vitamin D sufficient children from mothers receiving high-dose supplementation during pregnancy had a 60% reduced incidence of fractures compared with vitamin D insufficient children from mothers receiving standard-dose: 0.40 (0.19;0.84), p = 0.02.
At age 6 years, serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured in 83% (n = 318) of 383 children with available DXA data. Whole-body bone mineralization was higher in vitamin D sufficient children at age 6 years; BMD, adjusted mean difference (aMD) (95% CI): 0.011 g/cm2 (0.001;0.021), p = 0.03, and BMC, aMD: 12.3 g (-0.8;25.4), p = 0.07, with the largest effect in vitamin D sufficient children from mothers receiving high-dose vitamin D supplementation; BMD, aMD: 0.016 g/cm2 (0.002;0.030), p = 0.03, and BMC, aMD: 23.5 g (5.5;41.5), p = 0.01.

Childhood vitamin D sufficiency improved bone mineralization and in combination with prenatal high-dose vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of fractures.
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Higher risk of child forearm fracture if low vitamin D and perhaps low magnesium - 2022

Vitamin D and Forearm Fractures in Children Preliminary Findings: Risk Factors and Correlation between Low-Energy and High-Energy Fractures
Children 2022, 9(5), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050762

Background: The forearm is the most common fracture site in childhood, accounting for every fourth pediatric fracture. It is well described that vitamin D is involved in the regulation of bone mineralization and skeletal homeostasis by the regulation of calcium absorption. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels on forearm fracture falls in a pediatric population, depending on level of energy impact. Additionally, we also aimed to evaluate the correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and other tested risk factors for pediatric fractures.

Methods: We evaluated 50 eligible children aged 3 to 12 years with a forearm fracture. According to energy impact, patients were grouped into low-energy fractures (LEF) and high-energy fractures (HEF) groups. The general characteristics of the patients included age, gender, sport participation, and fractured bone and its localization. We analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, magnesium, phosphate, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and body mass index (BMI).

Results: There is a significant difference in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels distribution between LEF and HEF (p < 0.001) and PTH levels (p = 0.002). For magnesium levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and CRP levels, there were no significant differences in their frequency distribution. For the group of patients with LEF, there is a significantly positive correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels (p = 0.019) and a borderline significantly positive correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and magnesium levels (p = 0.050). For the group of patients with HEF, there was only a significantly positive correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH levels (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Children with LEF were more frequently insufficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels but had normal calcium levels, compared to the ones with HEF. These findings suggest that LEF and HEF in children might to a certain degree have different pathophysiological mechanisms.
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Low and high energy fractures in Children- May 2022

Vitamin D and Forearm Fractures in Children Preliminary Findings: Risk Factors and Correlation between Low-Energy and High-Energy Fractures   10.3390/children905076 FREE PDF

VitaminDWiki - 12 Fractures in children

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Infant bone fractures sometimes diagnosed as child abuse

4+ VitaminDWiki Infant-Child pages with ABUSE OR SHAKEN in title
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Items found: 4

VitaminDWiki - Childhood Fractures – consensus report on vitamin D – Feb 2016

VitaminDWiki - Hospital has banned Dr. Holick due to testifying in cases of infants with broken bones- August, 2021

VitaminDWiki - The Vitamin Deficiency Signs That Can Send You to Prison – Feb 2014

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
19192 Vitamin D and Forearm Fractures.pdf admin 09 Feb, 2023 225.79 Kb 248
19191 Childr Fracture high-dose while pregant_CompressPdf.pdf admin 09 Feb, 2023 335.34 Kb 280