Differential expression of serum/plasma proteins in various infectious diseases: Specific or nonspecific signatures
Sandipan Ray1, Sandip K. Patel1, Vipin Kumar1, Jagruti Damahe2, Sanjeeva Srivastava1,*
PROTEOMICS - Clinical Applications. Volume 8, Issue 1-2, pages 53–72, February 2014, DOI: 10.1002/prca.201300074
Apart from direct detection of the infecting organisms or biomarker of the pathogen itself, surrogate host markers are also useful for sensitive and early diagnosis of pathogenic infections. Early detection of pathogenic infections, discrimination among closely related diseases with overlapping clinical manifestations, and monitoring of disease progression can be achieved by analyzing blood biomarkers. Therefore, over the last decade large numbers of proteomics studies have been conducted to identify differentially expressed human serum/plasma proteins in different infectious diseases with the intent of discovering novel potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. However, in-depth review of the literature indicates that many reported biomarkers are altered in the same way in multiple infectious diseases, regardless of the type of infection. This might be a consequence of generic acute phase reactions, while the uniquely modulated candidates in different pathogenic infections could be indicators of some specific responses. In this review article, we will provide a comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed serum/plasma proteins in various infectious diseases and categorize the protein markers associated with generic or specific responses. The challenges associated with the discovery, validation, and translational phases of serum/plasma biomarker establishment are also discussed.
Figure 2. Differential expression of some selected serum/plasma proteins in different infectious diseases.
Fold-change values (up-/downregulation) of the candidate proteins were obtained from different published studies. If differential expression of any particular protein is reported in multiple studies, representative data are shown. Exact differential expression values for each candidate are provided in the Supporting Information Table 1. Alterations in protein expression levels in different infectious diseases are determined using healthy subjects as controls.
Fold-change values are calculated by keeping the expression level of the proteins (mean value) in healthy population as baseline. *, indicates that the differential expression of that protein is not reported in that particular disease in humans. VM, vivax malaria; FM, falciparum malaria; DF, dengue fever; DHF, dengue hemorrhagic fever; TB, tuberculosis; L, leptospirosis; P, pneumonia; ViM, viral meningitis; BM, bacterial meningitis; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; H,hepatitis, D, diarrhea.
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