Table of contents
- Peaks in Vitamin D levels and birth rates both occur earlier in the year at higher latitudes
- Vitamin D and fertility: a systematic review. - May 2012
- Sperm varied with vitamin D levels, even with average of 34 ng - Nov 2012
- Strong evidence of better sperm with higher levels of vitamin D - Review March 2013
- The evidence for seasonal variations of testosterone in men. - Jan 2013
- Vitamin D plays a major role in making testosterone - June 2014
- If males aleady had sufficient vitamin D, adding more did not increase testosterone levels - Sept 2013
- Vitamin D somewhat assists reproduction – both the mother and the father – May 2014
- Infertility rate is 2X higher for blacks than whites (no mention of vitamin D, nor the man) – April 2014
- Male fertility is improved in many ways by vitamin D – Jan 2014
- Fertility and sperm category in VitaminDWiki
- Vitamin D associations with erectile dysfunction - April 2012
- The happy Vitamin – Vitamin D – a 2 minute video March 2014
- Serotonin related to season, light and perhaps latitude and vitamin D
- The most likely month for being born occurs earlier in the year the farther from from the equator.
- Total Testosterone levels increased 25% after obese men got 3332 IU of vitamin D daily for a year - RCT March 2011
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Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 May;166(5):765-78. doi: 10.1530/EJE-11-0984. Epub 2012 Jan 24.
Lerchbaum E1, Obermayer-Pietsch B.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has been well-known for its function in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and promoting bone mineralization. There is some evidence that in addition to sex steroid hormones, the classic regulators of human reproduction, vitamin D also modulates reproductive processes in women and men.
AIM: The aim of this review was to assess the studies that evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and fertility in women and men as well as in animals.
METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed for relevant English language publications published until October 2011.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are found in reproductive tissues of women and men. Vdr knockout mice have significant gonadal insufficiency, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of testis, ovary and uterus. Moreover, we present evidence that vitamin D is involved in female reproduction including IVF outcome (clinical pregnancy rates) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In PCOS women, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with obesity, metabolic, and endocrine disturbances and vitamin D supplementation might improve menstrual frequency and metabolic disturbances in those women. Moreover, vitamin D might influence steroidogenesis of sex hormones (estradiol and progesterone) in healthy women and high 25(OH)D levels might be associated with endometriosis. In men, vitamin D is positively associated with semen quality and androgen status. Moreover, vitamin D treatment might increase testosterone levels. Testiculopathic men show low CYP21R expression, low 25(OH)D levels, and osteoporosis despite normal testosterone levels.
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Association of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels with semen and hormonal parameters.
Asian J Androl. 2012 Nov;14(6):855-9. doi: 10.1038/aja.2012.77. Epub 2012 Oct 8.
Hammoud AO1, Meikle AW, Peterson CM, Stanford J, Gibson M, Carrell DT.
1Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA. ahmad.hammoud at hsc.utah.edu
Vitamin D levels have been linked to various health outcomes including reproductive disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between serum vitamin D level (25-hydroxy-vitamin D, or 25OHD) and semen and hormonal parameters. This is a cross-sectional study that included 170 healthy men recruited for the study of spermatogenesis from the general population. Men completed general and reproductive health questionnaires, and donated blood and semen samples. The main measures were hormonal (total and free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and semen parameters, adjusted (n=147) for age, body mass index (BMI), season, alcohol intake and smoking, in relation to categories of vitamin D levels, determined a priori. The mean age of the study population was 29.0±8.5 years and mean BMI was 24.3±3.2 kg m(-2). The mean 25OHD was 34.1±15.06 ng ml(-1). BMI showed a negative association with 25OHD. Sperm concentration, sperm progressive motility, sperm morphology, and total progressively motile sperm count were lower in men with '25OHD≥50 ng ml(-1)' when compared to men with '20 ng ml(-1)≤25OHD<50 ng ml(-1)'. Total sperm count and total progressive motile sperm count were lower in men with '25OHD<20 ng ml(-1)' when compared to men with '20 ng ml(-1)≤25OHD<50 ng ml(-1)'. The adjusted means of various hormonal parameters did not show statistical difference in the different categories of 25OHD. In conclusion, serum vitamin D levels at high and low levels can be negatively associated with semen parameters.
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Vitamin D in human reproduction: a narrative review.
Int J Clin Pract. 2013 Mar;67(3):225-35. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12031. Epub 2013 Jan 7.
Anagnostis P1, Karras S, Goulis DG.
1Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Papageorgiou" General Hospital, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
BACKGROUND: Special attention has been given to the effect of vitamin D supplementation on fertility outcomes in both sexes.
AIMS: The purpose of this narrative review was to elucidate the role of vitamin D in male and female reproduction, providing current evidence from both animal and human studies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using PubMed and Medline, we searched for publications during the last 30 years regarding the role of vitamin D in human reproduction.
RESULTS: Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that vitamin D is involved in many functions of the reproductive system in both genders. In women, vitamin D status has been associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome, features of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis. Although several data converge towards a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in metabolic disturbances in women with PCOS, a significant knowledge gap precludes the establishment of a clear cause-effect relationship.
In men, vitamin D status has been associated with
- semen quality and
- sperm count,
- motility and
There is evidence for a favourable effect of vitamin D supplementation on semen quality, testosterone concentrations and fertility outcomes.
DISCUSSION: Studies with superior methodological characteristics are needed in order to establish a role for vitamin D on the treatment of female and male infertility.
CONCLUSIONS: Recent data on vitamin D provide new insights in the complex pathogenesis and treatment of infertility.
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Maturitas. 2013 Jan 4. pii: S0378-5122(12)00403-3. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.12.003. [Epub ahead of print]
Smith RP1, Coward RM, Kovac JR, Lipshultz LI.
1Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address: rpsmith at bcm.edu.
Ample evidence exists to support the concept of diurnal variations in testosterone levels; however, substantiation for seasonal fluctuations is sparse and inconsistent. Since circadian disparities exist, laboratory screening for hypogonadism has traditionally been conducted using serum testosterone levels obtained in the early morning. Should circannual variability of testosterone be confirmed, it would make the monitoring of testosterone levels more difficult while forcing the development of seasonal reference standards to allow for comparison. Moreover, decisions to begin treatment and adjustment of practice patterns would likely follow. This review thoroughly explores all of the available evidence concerning seasonal variations in testosterone levels. The impacts of melatonin, vitamin D, sleep-wake cycles, light exposure, physical activity, BMI, and waist circumference are also discussed.
Current research suggests that while some evidence exists to support the notion of seasonal testosterone variations, the discussed inconsistencies preclude the incorporation of this concept into current clinical standards.
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Testicular synthesis and vitamin D action.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jun 17:jc20141690. [Epub ahead of print]
Hofer D1, Münzker J, Schwetz V, Ulbing M, Hutz K, Stiegler P, Zigeuner R, Pieber TR, Müller H, Obermayer-Pietsch B.
1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria;
Context: The vitamin D system has pleiotropic effects not only in bone metabolism. Its role in testicular steroidogenesis is new and deserves intensive research. Objective: We hypothesize that vitamin D, especially 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol) induces male steroidogenesis and intend to identify its impact on genes and pathways in testicular androgen regulation. Methods: Human adult primary testicular cells were isolated, treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and their gene expression levels profiled by microarray analysis. Highly regulated genes were confirmed by real time quantitative PCR (RT qPCR). In addition, effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on gene expression level of androgens were assessed. Testosterone levels in the culture media were determined by high-resolution ELISA. The expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was confirmed at baseline and after 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation using immunocytochemistry. Results: Microarrays depicted sixty-three genes significantly regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3, including genes related to male androgen and vitamin D metabolism, mainly triggered by VDR/RXR receptor activation. 1,25(OH)2D3 led to significant changes in the expression profiles of reproductive genes and significantly increased testosterone synthesis in human testicular cell cultures.
Conclusions: Data from our human primary testicular cell culture model suggest that vitamin D plays a major role in male steroidogenesis in vitro.
If males aleady had sufficient vitamin D, adding more did not increase testosterone levels - Sept 2013
Supplementation with vitamin D does not increase serum testosterone levels in healthy males.
Horm Metab Res. 2013 Sep;45(9):675-81. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1345139. Epub 2013 May 17.
Jorde R1, Grimnes G, Hutchinson MS, Kjærgaard M, Kamycheva E, Svartberg J.
Cross-sectional studies indicate a positive relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and testosterone. It is not known if this relation is causal, which in theory could be in both directions. A cross-sectional population based study was designed with pooled data from 3 vitamin D randomized clinical trials (RCTs) performed in Tromsø with weight reduction, insulin sensitivity, and depression scores as endpoints, and one testosterone RCT in subjects with low serum testosterone (<11.0 nmol/l) and with body composition as endpoint. Serum 25(OH)D and androgens were measured in 893 males in the cross-sectional part, at baseline and after 6-12 months of supplementation with vitamin D 20 000 IU-40 000 IU per week vs. placebo in the vitamin D RCTs (n=282), and at baseline and after one year treatment with testosterone undecanoate 1 000 mg or placebo injections (at baseline and after 6, 16, 28, and 40 weeks) in the testosterone RCT (n=37). In the cross-sectional study, serum 25(OH)D was found to be a significant and positive predictor of serum testosterone. In the vitamin D RCTs, no significant effect on serum total or free testosterone levels was seen, and in the testosterone RCT no significant effect on serum 25(OH)D was seen. This was unchanged in sub-analyses in subjects with low serum 25(OH)D (or testosterone) levels.
In conclusion, in subjects without significant vitamin D deficiency, there is no increase in serum testosterone after high dose vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, in subjects with moderately low serum testosterone levels, substitution with testosterone does not increase serum 25(OH)D.
Infertility rate is 2X higher for blacks than whites (no mention of vitamin D, nor the man) – April 2014
Fertility and sperm
The happy Vitamin – Vitamin D – a 2 minute video March 2014
So how do you feel when you get back from vacation? Let's say you just got back from Hawaii. You had some sun. You lay on the beach. You feel really good. How do you feel when you're lying on the beach? You feel amazing. How did you feel that night, going out for dinner? You feel really, really well.
You know, what we're finding is sunshine is the happy vitamin. Sunshine equals more vitamin D. So let's talk a little bit about vitamin D. Vitamin D is actually not a vitamin. If you look back when it was coined back in the 1940s, it's actually a hormone. It's almost identical in structure to testosterone. So vitamin D and testosterone have a lot of similar effects on the body.
You know testosterone's touted for increasing strength, increasing bone density, increasing vitality, increasing energy. Vitamin D is almost exactly the same molecule. It's just slightly changed. If you look at our body, there's a receptor for vitamin D on almost every cell on your body. So that means when you have vitamin D in your body, it's going to affect the processes of any part of your body.
Probably will find that peak vitamin D levels have a similar variation.
Total Testosterone levels increased 25% after obese men got 3332 IU of vitamin D daily for a year - RCT March 2011
Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men.
Horm Metab Res. 2011 Mar;43(3):223-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1269854. Epub 2010 Dec 10.
Pilz S1, Frisch S, Koertke H, Kuhn J, Dreier J, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Wehr E, Zittermann A.
The male reproductive tract has been identified as a target tissue for vitamin D, and previous data suggest an association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D with testosterone levels in men. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation influences testosterone levels in men. Healthy overweight men undergoing a weight reduction program who participated in a randomized controlled trial were analyzed for testosterone levels. The entire study included 200 nondiabetic subjects, of whom 165 participants (54 men) completed the trial. Participants received either 83 μg (3,332 IU) vitamin D daily for 1 year (n = 31) or placebo (n =2 3). Initial 25(OH)D concentrations were in the deficiency range (< 50 nmol/l) and testosterone values were at the lower end of the reference range (9.09-55.28 nmol/l for males aged 20-49 years) in both groups. Mean circulating 25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly by 53.5 nmol/l in the vitamin D group, but remained almost constant in the placebo group.
Compared to baseline values, a significant increase in
- total testosterone levels (from 10.7 ± 3.9 nmol/l to 13.4 ± 4.7 nmol/l; p < 0.001),
- bioactive testosterone (from 5.21 ± 1.87 nmol/l to 6.25 ± 2.01 nmol/l; p = 0.001), and
- free testosterone levels (from 0.222 ± 0.080 nmol/l to 0.267 ± 0.087 nmol/l; p = 0.001)
were observed in the vitamin D supplemented group. By contrast, there was no significant change in any testosterone measure in the placebo group. Our results suggest that vitamin D supplementation might increase testosterone levels. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm this hypothesis.
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. PMID: 2115419
This study was referenced in the following article by Dr. Mercola - Aug 2014
What You Need to Know About Testosterone Testing and Testosterone Replacement Therapy